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21英语教师网 > 备课资源 > 拓展阅读 > 正文
The sinking world
作者:21ST    来源:21英语网    日期: 2012-09-17


关键词:Basic knowledge about earthquakes; How to protect oneself and help others in disasters



超采地下水导致华北地区过半地面沉降。词数 360 建议阅读时间 7分钟

IN 2009, a three-story hospital building in Cangzhou, Hebei province, had to be torn down because it had sunk an entire story into the ground. But it wasn’t an earthquake that turned this building’s first floor into its basement (地下室).

Over the past four decades, land subsidence (地面沉降) has caused Cangzhou to sink by as much as 2.4 meters. Half of the North China Plain has sunk by more than 20 centimeters, says Wu Ai’min, an official with the China Geological Environmental Monitoring Institute (中国地质环境监测院). Other areas in North China, such as Beijing and Tianjin, are also at risk.

There are natural causes for land subsidence, but such an extreme change is due to human activity. On the North China Plain, overuse of groundwater is the main reason.

According to Wu, between 75 and 80 percent of the water people use in North China comes from underground. There are more than 2 million deepwater wells pumping (抽) groundwater every day from the North China Plain. About 120 billion cubic meters (立方米) of water have been taken away so far. It will take the natural circulation (循环) system more than 10,000 years to refill the empty space left behind, said Wu.

Land subsidence can lead to disasters like cracks (裂缝) in pipelines (管道) and lakes drying up, and may threaten the safety of subways, high-speed railway lines and buildings in cities. If the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway is to run safely at 380km per hour, railway foundations (地基) cannot be allowed to subside (下陷) by more than 5mm in 100 years.

The South-North Water Diversion Project started nearly ten years ago to ease the water shortage in North China. Now, however, the project itself is threatened by land subsidence.

The key to solving the problem is to save water. It is crucial for the North China Plain that this area starts to develop water-saving agriculture and get rid of water-consuming (高消耗的) industries. Beijing announced in 2007 that it would be shutting down some water-consuming projects such as golf courses and bath centers within five years.

Saving water, gas and oil in daily life are things that all of us can do to prevent the overuse of natural resources and help stop land subsidence.

Dealing with subsidence

MANY other regions (地区) in the world, such as Taiwan, the US and Japan, also face the same problem. They have put into place some effective (有效的) measures, which offer valuable lessons.

▲Taiwan: A plan is in place for the proper use of subsided lands. Some water-consuming industries have been shut down, as have pumping wells. Fees are collected for the use of groundwater.

▲US: Special technology called the Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR,含水层存储和恢复技术) is used to store water. Dams have been built to collect rainwater.

▲Japan: Laws limit (限制) the use of groundwater. For example, 1956 and 1962 saw two such laws put into practice: the Industrial Water Use Law and the Use of Groundwater in Construction (建筑业) Law.


关键词:人教版 高一 Earthquakes 自然Nature



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