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What to do in an earthquake
作者:21ST    来源:高中版第204期    日期: 2010-09-21

关键词:Basic knowledge about earthquakes; How to protect oneself and help others in disasters



TWO weeks ago Ruichang City in Jiangxi Province was hit by an earthquake measuring 5.7 on the Richter scale(理氏震级). It killed 18 people and left hundreds homeless.

Earthquakes are one of the most deadly natural disasters in the world. They happen more frequently than you would expect.

In the 24 hours after you read this, 400 to 500 earthquakes will shake the earth. You won't notice most of them because you live in a relatively stable (相对稳定) area or the quake is too far away or because the quake will be too small to notice.

Earthquakes are caused by sudden breaks in rock masses (岩层) deep in the earth. Rock masses are always under very high pressure. If the pressure in a certain area bcome too much and the rock masses break, an earthquake happens. But exactly when the rock masses reach the breaking point is a mystery.

China is located on the Eurasia plate (板块), where earthquakes happen frequently due to the earth's plates knocking against each other. Up to 17,139 earthquakes have taken place in China in the past 44 years, according to scientific research.

Dos and Don'ts
During the quake
1. If you are indoors, don't run out of the building in a hurry. Take cover under strong furniture, like tables, or stand against an inside wall. If you are in bed, hold on, stay there and protect your head with a pillow (枕头).
2. Remember "Drop, Cover and Hold on (蹲下、躲好、全身紧绷!)" Stay indoors until the shaking stops and you're sure it's safe to go out.
3. Never take an elevator.
4. If you are outside, find a clear spot away from buildings, trees and power lines.
5. Drop to the ground until the shaking stops.
6. If you are in a car, slow down and drive to a clear place away from building, trees and power lines. Don't stop on overpasses (高架桥), underpasses (涵洞) or bridges. Stay inside the car until the shaking stops.
7. Don't try to hold your pet during a quake. Animals want to hide when their safety is threatened. If you get in their way, even the nicest pets may hurt you.

After the quake
1. Expect aftershocks (余震). Each time you feel one, "Drop, Cover and Hold on"!
2. Check yourself for injuries. Protect yourself by wearing long pants, a long-sleeved (长袖的) shirt, sturdy (结实的) shoes and gloves.
3. Listen to a radio, if possible, for the latest emergency information.
4. Check others for injuries. Give first aid when needed. Do not move seriously injured people unless they are in immediate danger of further injury.
5. Remember to help neighbours who may require special help - children, the elderly, and people with disabilities.
6. Inspect your home for damage. Get everyone outside if your home is unsafe.
7. Check your telephone to see if it still works. Use the telephone only for emergencies.
8. Check for gas leaks (泄漏). If you smell gas, open a window and leave the building.
Source: American Red Cross

Test yourself


1. An earthquake may last quite a long time.

2. Where the different plates on the earth meet, earthquakes happen frequently.

3. What makes earthquakes difficult to predict is the exact time the rock masses reach breaking point.

4. It's better to get out of a building as soon as an earthquake happens.


When an emergency happens, it's very difficult to keep calm. Think of people who are able to do so in TV plays or movies. What do they do or think to calm down?



关键词:人教版 高一 Earthquakes 自然Nature



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