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高考对复合句的考查
作者:21ST
时间:2010-01-29

Editor's note: 复合句也是高考命题的热点之一,主要考查引导词的选用。研究近几年的高考题,可发现对于复合句引导词的考查主要有以下六种类型:

一、根据前后分句的逻辑关系或一些固定句型与搭配命题

正确理解句意是解题关键。同时,考生要全面掌握各种从属连词的意思和用法,并熟记一些常用句型。

1. You may use the room as you like ______ you clean it up afterwards. (09北京)

A. so far as B. so long as C. in case D. even if

【解析】根据句意“你可以使用这个房间,_____你用完后将其清理干净”可知,答案为B (只要)。so far as 就……而言; in case 万一;even if 即使。

2. I had just stepped out of the bathroom and was busily drying myself with a towel _______ I heard the steps. (06湖南)

A. while B. when C. since D. after

【解析】B。was/were doing sth when…为固定结构,表示“正在做某事时突然发生了另外一件事情”。类似句型还有be about to do sth when…。

二、根据引导词在从句中是否充当成分、充当什么成分命题

该命题角度主要涉及名词性从句与定语从句。答题时,如果是名词性从句,可根据句意与引导词在从句中是否充当成分来选择;如果是定语从句,则主要根据先行词在定语从句中充当什么成分来选择。

1. People in Chongqing are proud of ______ they have achieved in the past ten years. (08重庆)

A. that B. which C. what D. how

【解析】C。宾语从句中缺少宾语,排除A、D;which引导名词性从句表示“哪一个”,不合题意,故选C,表示“……的东西/事情”。

2. A person ______ e-mail account is full won’t be able to send or receive any e-mails. (09天津)

A. who B. whom C. whose D. whoever

【解析】C。先行词a person在从句中作定语,要用whose引导,whose相当于“a person’s”。

三、考查定语从句中“介词+关系代词”

这类题的难点在于关系代词前介词的选择,可用还原法答题,即把先行词还原到从句中,根据先行词或从句谓语动词的搭配或句意来确定该用什么介词。

1. Gun control is a subject ______ Americans have argued for a long time. (09陕西)

A. of which B. with which

C. about which D. into which

【解析】argue about sth表示“议论某事”,将先行词还原到从句中,即Americans have argued about the subject…,故选C。

2. The man pulled out a gold watch, ______ were made of small diamonds. (08陕西)

A. the hands of whom B. whom the hands of

C. which the hands of D. the hands of which

【解析】将先行词还原到从句,即the hands of the gold watch were made of…,故选D,但也可用of which the hands或whose hands引导。

四、利用引导词的一词多义增加难度或某些相似句型设置陷阱

答这类题时考生要注重语境,弄懂句意,强化对易混知识的辨析,有意识地消除思维定势。

1. ______ the Internet is of great help, I don’t think it’s a good idea to spend too much time on it.(08湖南)

A. If B. While C. Because D. A

【解析】B。while在此引导让步状语从句,表示“虽然,尽管”,相当于although。

2. Nancy enjoyed herself so much ______ she visited her friends in Sydney last year. (08福建)

A. that B. which C. when D. where

【解析】C。本题很容易受so…that句型误导而选A。但是下一分句并不是一个结果状语,而只是交待了主句动作发生的时间,所以答案为C。

五、通过增加限定语、同位语、插入语等成分,增加句子的复杂程度(特别注意分隔式定语从句与同位语从句)

解答这类题时,可将题干中那些不必考虑的干扰成分删除掉,保留句子的主干成分,或将句子适当移位重组,使复杂的句子简单化。

1. –It’s thirty years since we last met.

– But I still remember the story, believe it or not,______ we got lost on a rainy night. (06四川)

A. which B. that C. what D. when

【解析】B。题干中的插入语believe it or not使句子变得复杂了。将其去掉,可知that在此引导同位语从句,补充说明story的具体内容。

2. Because of the financial crisis, days are gone ______ local 5-star hotels charged 6,000 yuan for one night. (09江苏)

A. if B. when C. which D. since

【解析】B。先行词days与修饰它的从句被谓语分隔开了,将days还原到从句,即during those days…, days在从句中作时间状语。

六、将复合句与强调句、倒装句、感叹句、省略句等结合在一起考查

解此类题,考生要在把握好以上几点的基础上,熟练掌握不同句型的变换规则。

1. I just wonder _______ that makes him so excited. (06山东)

A. why it does B. what he doe

C. how it is D. what it i

【解析】D。本题关键是识别宾语从句是由一个强调句构成。把强调句标志词“it is/was… that”去掉,可知D项为正确答案。

33. Unsatisfied ______ with the payment, he took the job just to get some work experience. (09重庆)

A. though was he B. though he wa

C. he was though D. was he though

【解析】B。though引导让步状语从句可以倒装,也可以不倒装。上句相当于though he was unsatisfied…。

高 考 原 题 回 放

【回放一】

1. You can’t borrow books from the school library ______ you get your student card. (09上海)

A. before B. if C. while D. a

【解析】根据句意“在没有拿到学生证之前不能借书”可知答案为A。

2. All the dishes in this menu, ______ otherwise stated, will serve two to three people. (09全国II)

A. as B. if C. though D. unle

【解析】D。unless相当于if…not,符合语境。

3. Leave your key with a neighbor _______ you lock yourself out one day. (07北京)

A. ever since B. even if C. soon after D. in case

【解析】D。句意为:将钥匙留给一位邻居,以防将自己锁在外面。

【回放二】

1. Whenever I met her, ______ was fairly often, she greeted me with a sweet smile. (09山东)

A. who B. which C. when D. that

【解析】B。which指代前面整件事情,且在从句中作主语,that不能引导非限制性定语从句。

2. The how-to book can be of help to ______ wants to do the job. (09陕西)

A. who B. whomever

C. no matter who D. whoever

【解析】D。宾语从句中缺少主语,排除B;C不能引导名词性从句;who表示“谁”不合题意;whoever =anyone who。

3. It is obvious to the students ______ they should get well prepared for their future. (09天津)

A. as B. which C. whether D. that

【解析】It为形式主语,从句中不缺成分,故选D,that引导主语从句。

【回放三】

1. By nine o’clock, all the Olympic torch bearers had reached the top of Mount Qomolangma, ______ appeared rare rainbow soon. (08福建)

A. of which B. on which

C. from which D. above which

【解析】D。根据句意,彩虹出现在珠穆朗玛峰的上空,只有above符合语境,故选D。

2. Eric received training in computer for one year, ______ he found a job in a big company. (07辽宁)

A. after that B. after which

C. after it D. after thi

【解析】B。which指代前面整件事情,主从句两件事情又有先后关系,故用after which。

3. I saw a woman running toward me in the dark. Before I could recognize who she was,she had run back in the direction ______ she had come. (06重庆)

A. of which B. by which

C. in which D. from which

【解析】D。还原即she had come from the direction...

【回放四】

1. How can you expect to learn anything ______ you never listen? (06山东)

A. in case B. even if C. unless D. when

【解析】D。when表示“既然”,相当于since。

2. –Do you have anything to say for yourselves?

–Yes, there’s one point ______ we must insist on. (06江西)

A. why B. where C. how D. that

【解析】D。定语从句中缺少宾语,故选D。

3. We’re just trying to reach a point ______ both sides will sit down together and talk. (06山东)

A. where B. that C. when D. which

【解析】A。与上题的区别是,此处a point在从句中作地点状语,相当于at this point, both sides will...。

【回放五】

1. News came from the school office ______ Wang Lin had been admitted to Beijing University. (09四川)

A. which B. what C. that D. where

【解析】C。此题难点是,news与修饰它的同位语从句被谓语came from the school office分隔了。

2. Later in this chapter cases will be introduced to readers ______ consumer complaints have resulted in changes in the law.(08江西)

A. where B. when C. who D. which

【解析】先行词cases及其从句被谓语分隔,将其还原到从句,即in these cases, consumer complaints …, 故选A。

3. The old lady’s hand shook frequently. She explained to her doctor ______ this shaking had begun half a year before, and ______, only because of this, she had been forced to give up her job.(05重庆)

A. when; how B. how; when

C. how; how D. why; why

【解析】C。去掉插入语only because of this或将其挪至句尾,句子结构就清晰了。

【回放六】

1. So sudden ______ that the enemy had no time to escape. (09山东)

A. did the attack B. the attack did

C. was the attack D. the attack wa

【解析】C。so…that…引导结果状语从句时,当so位于主句句首时,主句要用倒装句。

2. It was ______ he came back from Africa that year ______ he met the girl he would like to marry. (09江西)

A. when; then B. not; until

C. not until; that D. only; when

【解析】C。本题考查not...until...句型的强调句:It is/was + not until… + that +其它部分。


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