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阅读理解真题解析
作者:北京市六一中学 张春荣
时间:2010-02-05

根据不同的目的,同学们应采用不同的阅读方法。一般说来,有扫读、查读和细读三种。

1.扫读(Skimming):

扫读是用浏览全文的方法了解文章的大意和主题思想,并对文章的结构有个总的概念。扫读应特别注意文章的开始段、结束段、文章中每段的段首句和结尾句以及篇章连接手段和行文中的信息词(signal word),因为它们往往是对文章内容的整体概括,是左右文章大意的关键。

2.查读 (Scanning):

查读如同查电话号码或翻字典查单词一样,是专门用来处理阅读中的细节问题(Supporting Details). Detai1s是用来说明、论证或分析文章中心的。这类题目常以“Wh-”形式来提问,如who, what, when, where, why及how等形式。这些问题的表达通常不会采用文章中的原话提问,而是使用同义词语等。因此,在选择答案前应首先看准题干,看清问题所问;然后在查读时注意寻找与题目相关的关键词语;最后在充分理解原文和原题的基础上确定正确答案。 

当然,这类细节性问题所涉及的面是很广的。有的涉及数字计算,如问时间、距离、次数、数量等,认真计算后方可选定正确答案;有的涉及正误判断,要先看选项,根据选项提供的线索,寻视文中相应部分,最后在题中选出肯定答案;还有的询问事实、原因、结果、目的等。总之,做细节题切忌通过自己对某类知识的主观了解和认识做出想象判断,一定要紧扣文章内容,不可随心所欲。 

3.细读(Reading for full understanding):

找到文章中的有关范围以后,即在该范围内逐句阅读,特别对关键词、关键句要仔细琢磨,以便对其有较深刻、较准确的理解和掌握。不仅要理解其字面意思,而且要通过推理、判断、弄清文章中“字里行间”潜在的意思。在细读时,对没有学过的生词,可根据上下文或自己的背景知识等来推测其意义;对难以看懂的长句,可借助语法手段,对其加以分析,以达到透彻理解。

Example 1

2009年山东省淄博市中考卷

Every year thousands of people get hurt or die when they are crossing the road. Most of these people are old people and children. Old people often get hurt or die because they can’t see or hear very well. Children usually meet with accidents because of their carelessness. They forgot to look and listen before they cross the road.

How can we lessen (减少) traffic accidents? All of us must obey the traffic rules. For the drivers, they shouldn’t drive too fast. If they drive too fast, it will be very difficult to stop the cars in a very short time. For the pedestrians (行人), it’s very important to be careful when they are walking on the road. Therefore, when we walk across the road, we must try to walk along the pavements. We must stop and look both ways before crossing the road. Look left first, next look right, then look left again. Only when we are sure that the road is clear, we can cross it. The right way to cross the road is to walk quickly. It’s not safe to run. If people run across the road, they may fall down. Teens should try to help children, old people or blind people to cross the road, and never play in the street.

首先,我们可以确定文章为一篇关于少年生活类的说明文。在说明文中,事实题占据主体。通过阅读试题,明确问题重点集中在如何正确过马路,为什么过马路时老人和孩子容易受伤,文章的题目及作为学生应该怎样做。然后,带着这4个问题,仔细阅读文章。

50. Which of the following is NOT the right way to cross the road?

A. Stop and look both ways. B. Run quickly.

C. Make sure that the road is clear D. Walk quickly.

【解析】细节推断题。这类题要求我们要读懂原文,抓住关键词、短语、句子或段落,透彻理解文章内容,注意文章结构层次和逻辑关系,做出准确的推断和引申。本题的关键词是Not, right, cross the road。文中第2段倒数第5行The right way to cross the road is to walk quickly. It’s not safe to run. 告诉我们跑步是不安全的,所以答案应为B。

51. Why do most old people often get hurt or die when they are crossing the road?

A. Because they are not careful.

B. Because they forget to look and listen.

C. Because they can’t see or hear very well.

D. Because they often run across the road.

【解析】事实理解题。根据old people找到文章中的相应范围即第一段第三句话Old people often get hurt or die because they can’t see or hear very well。再在该范围内逐句阅读,特别对关键词、关键句仔细琢磨。确定because后面引导的就是原因,因而答案是C。

52. The best title for this article may be _____.

A. How to lessen traffic accidents.

B. How to cross the road.

C. Please obey the traffic rules.

D. Meeting with traffic accidents.

【解析】主旨大意题,为文章选择标题。此题要求考生领会全文大意,真正理解文章的话题和中心思想。通过扫读,找出主题句。综合两段中的第一句话Every year thousands of people get hurt or die when they are crossing the road.和How can we lessen (减少) traffic accidents? 我们知道文章整体是叙述过马路的正确方法。故选B。

53. As a student, you can to try to lessen traffic accidents.

A. let drivers drive slowly B. play in the street carefully

C. run across the road quickly

D. help children to cross the road

【解析】细节推断题。根据As a student和 lessen traffic accidents等关键细节,找到文章中的相应范围即最后一段最后一句话Teens should try to help children, old people or blind people to cross the road, and never play in the street.由此可知答案是D。

在把4道题都做完后,我们应该了对文章有了更好的理解,这时,我们再带着试题的答案回到文章中,仔细研读重点词句,确保答案正确。

Example 2

2009年湖北省黄冈市中考卷

A little boy invited his mother to attend his elementary school’s first teacher-parent meeting. To the little boy’s dismay (沮丧), his mother said she would go. This would be the first time that his classmates and teachers met his mother and he was embarrassed by her appearance. There was a severe (严重的) scar (伤疤) that covered nearly the whole right side of her face. The boy never wanted to talk about why or how she got the scar.

At the meeting, the people were impressed by the kindness of his mother with the scar, but the little boy was still embarrassed and hid himself from everyone. However, he could hear clearly the conversation between his mother and the teacher.

“How did you get the scar on your face?” the teacher asked.

The mother replied, “When my son was a baby, he was in a room that caught on fire. Everyone was too afraid to go in because the fire was out of control, but I went in. As I was running towards his bed, I saw a burning wood falling down and I placed myself over him trying to protect him. I was knocked to be unconscious (无知觉的), but luckily, a fireman came in and saved both of us.” She touched the burned side of her face. “This scar will be forever, but until today, I have never regretted doing what I did.”

When the little boy heard this, he couldn’t help running towards his mother with tears in his eyes. He hugged her and felt his mother was greater than anyone. He held her hand tightly for the rest of the day.

首先,我们可以确定文章为一篇描述少年情感的记叙文。在记叙文中,事实推断题占据主体。通过阅读文后试题,明确问题重点集中在妈妈是怎样的一个人,小男孩对妈妈去开会的态度以及我们了解哪些事实是正确的。同学们可以先把3个问题串接起来,再仔细阅读文章。

67. The boy’s mother was actually (事实上) _____.

A. ugly B. kind C. beautiful D. ugly but kind

【解析】细节推断题。文章没有直接描述妈妈的性格,这就需要我们要查读描述妈妈面貌和性格的句子。通过第一段小男孩对妈妈脸上scar的不愿意提及以及小男孩的embarrassed 可以知道妈妈的面貌有些ugly,但是第二段第一句话the people were impressed by the kindness of his mother with the scar我们了解到妈妈的善良,因此答案是D。

68. According to the passage, the little boy ________.

A. didn’t ask his mother to attend the meeting

B. wanted his mother to attend the meeting at first

C. didn’t really want his mother to attend the meeting at first

D. wasn’t moved by what her mother said

【解析】细节理解题。首先通读全文,领悟大意,注意关键词的用法,其中选项A,B,C都集中在小男孩对让妈妈参加会议的态度上。在做题中,我们可以采用排除法。文章第一句话就说小男孩邀请了妈妈开会(A little boy invited his mother to attend…) ,所以先排除A;在最后一段倒数第二句话说小男孩紧紧抱着他的妈妈He hugged her and felt his mother was greater than anyone说明他被妈妈感动了,由此排除D。那现在我们就把重点放在want,和didn’t really want。第1段的第2句话To the little boy’s dismay (沮丧), his mother said she would go. Dismay这个词告诉我们小男孩的态度是不愿意。因而答案是C。

69. After reading the passage, we know _______.

A. the people at the meeting didn’t like the boy’s mother

B. the boy’s mother was brave but foolish

C. the boy hated what his mother had done

D. we should respect our parents whatever they are like

【解析】细节推断题。通过67、68题的查读,我们知道小男孩对妈妈伤疤的态度以及整个事情的经过,现在要用细读的方法找到文章中的相关范围,对关键词、关键句要仔细琢磨,以便对其有较深刻、较准确的理解和掌握。依然可以采用排除法来做此题。文章第二段第一句话人们对妈妈的善良印象深刻排除A;在B选项中说妈妈foolish是不恰当的,冲入火中救自己的孩子不能算“愚蠢”,C选项的hate是不对的,母亲救了孩子,孩子怎么会“恨”她呢?故而选D。

C6: Try it yourself: 1-5 CCBAD

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