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21英语教师网 > 语言文化 > 新词新译 > 正文
《韦氏词典》2022年度词“Gaslighting”=PUA吗?
作者:21ST    来源:整理自CATTI中心、CATTI备考指南、纽约时间    日期: 2022-12-15
近日,韦氏词典公布了2022年度词汇:Gaslighting(煤气灯效应)。值得一提的是,这和国内比较火的PUA 有点接近,那么二者有什么区别呢?小编分享出来和大家一起涨姿势

何为煤气灯效应呢?

Merriam-Webster's top definition for gaslighting is the psychological manipulation of a person, usually over an extended period of time, that "causes the victim to question the validity of their own thoughts, perception of reality, or memories and typically leads to confusion, loss of confidence and self-esteem, uncertainty of one's emotional or mental stability, and a dependency on the perpetrator."

韦氏词典对煤气灯效应(gaslighting)的定义是通常在很长一段时间内,对一个人的心理操纵,这种操纵“导致受害者对自己的想法、对现实的看法或者对记忆产生质疑,并往往产生困惑、失去信心和自尊心、导致情绪或精神稳定的不确定性以及对加害者的依赖。”
 

psychological

psychological 表示“心灵的;心理的;精神上的”,英文解释为“connected with a person's mind and the way in which it works”

the psychological development of children
儿童的心理发展。

perception

1. 表示“认识,观念,看法”,英文解释为“a belief or opinion, often held by many people and based on how things seem”

2. 表示“知觉;感知”,英文解释为“the way you notice things, especially with the senses”如:visual perception 视觉;

perpetrator

perpetrator 表示“作恶者;犯罪者”,英文解释为“someone who does something morally wrong or illegal”。
 

简单来说,“煤气灯效应”又叫认知否定, 实际上是一种通过“扭曲”受害者眼中的真实而进行的心理操控和洗脑


煤气灯效应:

“如果你对自己的看法往往来自周围人的评价;你的父母数落你的穿着、工作、朋友还有交往对象,你却反思也许他们的意见都是对的;你很难做出简单的决定,并且经常自我怀疑,也许这不是因为你还不够好,而是你无意识地被操控了。”

煤气灯效应从何而来?

煤气灯效应概念最早起源于1938年的话剧《煤气灯》,被首次关注是来自于20世纪初期的根据话剧剧本的改编版电影《煤气灯下》。


2007年,心理学家罗宾·斯特恩(Robin Stern)结合20年的临床经验出版了《煤气灯效应:远离情感暴力和操纵狂》,该书出版之后,煤气灯效应被广泛地运用于心理学(尤其是临床心理学)学科领域,后不断延伸扩展到哲学、政治学(政治评论)等学科领域。
 


It birthed two film adaptations in the 1940s. One, George Cukor's "Gaslight" in 1944, starred Ingrid Bergman as Paula Alquist and Charles Boyer as Gregory Anton. The two marry after a whirlwind romance and Gregory turns out to be a champion gaslighter. Among other instances, he insists her complains over the constant dimming of their London townhouse's gaslights is a figment of her troubled mind. It wasn't.

adaptation

1. 表示“适应”,英文解释为“the process of changing to suit different conditions”

2. 表示“(电影、书、剧本等的)改编”,英文解释为“a film, book, play, etc. that has been made from another film, book, play, etc.”

whirlwind

1. 作名词,表示“旋风”,英文解释为“a tall, spinning column of air that moves across the surface of the land or sea.”

2. 表示“一片忙乱”,英文解释为“a situation or series of events where a lot of things happen very quickly”

3. 作形容词,表示“(事件)旋风般的,飞快的”,英文解释为“A whirlwind event happens very fast, and often unexpectedly.”

dim

1. 表示“(使)变暗,(使)亮度降低”,英文解释为“to (make something) become less bright”

2. 表示“(使)减弱,(使)变淡”,英文解释为“to (make a positive feeling or quality) become less strong”

figment

通常用 a figment of sb's imagination表示“凭空想象的事物;虚构的事;臆造的事物”,英文解释为“If you say that something is a figment of someone's imagination, you mean that it does not really exist and that they are just imagining it.”

煤气灯效应=PUA?

有人认为“煤气灯效应”和PUA(Pick-up Artist)一样,两者都属于情感控制,二者的本质与原理一样,但各自应用的领域不同

煤气灯效应 vs PUA

PUA的原意是“搭讪艺术家”,通过心理操作的手段来建立关系。而“煤气灯效应”可以进一步延伸到朝夕相处的朋友、同事、伴侣、家人身上,更多是在关系建立阶段出现。

如何摆脱煤气灯效应?

一、建立自己的社交系统,不要太过依赖于某个人

当你通过某个人去接触外界时,恰恰也给予了这个人控制你生活的能力。所以,你需要自己去建立完全属于的社交网络,这样才避免操控者操控你。

二、觉察“操控”,从小事开始脱离控制

其实被操控时,你是可以意识到的,只是因为你太过于相信某个人而怀疑自己。其实当你意识到这个过程后,你可以从小事开始慢慢控制脱离,自己掌管自己的事。

三、相信自己,客观分析他人本身与其行为

充分了解自己的为人,这样才能从别人的评价中清楚认识到哪些是客观准确的,哪些是错误扭曲的,理智地去看待操纵者本身的行为。

韦氏词典公布的其他热门词汇

据了解,韦氏词典官网每月有1亿次的网页浏览量,年度词语的选择完全由数据所决定,

索科洛夫斯基介绍说:“在剔除一些经常被查询的常青词之后,他和他的团队会比较哪个词的查询量和前一年相比得到了明显的提升”。


Merriam-Webster, which logs 100 million pageviews a month on its site, chooses its word of the year based solely on data. Sokolowski and his team weed out evergreenwords most commonly looked up to gauge which word received a significant bump over the year before.

weed sth/sb out

表示“清除;剔除;淘汰”,英文解释为“to get rid of unwanted things or people from a group”

evergreen

evergreen 表示“永葆青春的;不衰的;持久的”,英文解释为“always seeming fresh or remaining popular”

其他热门词汇

事实上,韦氏词典今年其他的流行词多多少少都与一些热门事件有关。比如,人们对因俄乌关系对“寡头”(oligarch)一词产生了兴趣;查尔斯国王登基后,他的妻子卡米拉被称为“王后”(Queen Consort);新冠病毒的最新变种以第十五个希腊字母“奥米克戎”(omicron)命名;所谓“取消文化”(cancel culture)的兴起;以及罗诉韦德案被美国最高法院推翻之后,大家都在考虑如何把堕胎权“编纂”(codify)入联邦法律之中。

下面是美联社新闻的相关报道:

‘Gaslighting’ :Merriam-Webster’s word of 2022
“煤气灯”:《韦氏词典》2022年词汇

From: AP NEWS
来源:美联社新闻

“Gaslighting” — mind manipulating, grossly misleading, downright deceitful — is Merriam-Webster's word of the year.
 “煤气灯(gaslighting)”是韦氏词典的年度词汇,它指的是操纵思想、严重误导、彻头彻尾的欺骗行为。

Lookups for the word on merriam-webster.com increased 1,740% in 2022 over the year before. But something else happened. There wasn't a single event that drove significant spikes in the curiosity, as it usually goes with the chosen word of the year.
在韦氏词典网站上,这个词的搜索量在2022年比上一年增加了1740%。但发生了另一件事。没有一个单一的事件导致了好奇心的显著激增,因为它通常与年度词汇一起出现。

The gaslighting was pervasive.
煤气灯无处不在。 

“It's a word that has risen so quickly in the English language, and especially in the last four years, that it actually came as a surprise to me and to many of us,” said Peter Sokolowski, Merriam-Webster's editor at large, in an exclusive interview with The Associated Press ahead of Monday's unveiling.
《韦氏词典》的特约编辑彼得·索科洛夫斯基(Peter Sokolowski)在周一公布新词之前接受美联社的独家采访时说:“这个词在英语中崛起得如此之快,尤其是在过去四年里,以至于我和很多人都感到惊讶。” 

“It was a word looked up frequently every single day of the year,” he said
“这是一个一年中每天都被频繁查询的单词,”他说。

There were deepfakes and the dark web. There were deep states and fake news. And there was a whole lot of trolling.
有深度伪造和暗网,有深层政府和假新闻,还有很多喷子。

Merriam-Webster's top definition for gaslighting is the psychological manipulation of a person, usually over an extended period of time, that “causes the victim to question the validity of their own thoughts, perception of reality, or memories and typically leads to confusion, loss of confidence and self-esteem, uncertainty of one's emotional or mental stability, and a dependency on the perpetrator.”
韦氏词典对煤气灯的最主要定义是对一个人的心理操纵,通常持续很长一段时间,“导致受害者质疑自己思想、对现实的感知或记忆的可靠性,通常导致困惑、信心和自尊的丧失、情绪或精神的不稳定,以及对施暴者的依赖。” 

Gaslighting is a heinous tool frequently used by abusers in relationships — and by politicians and other newsmakers. It can happen between romantic partners, within a broader family unit and among friends. It can be a corporate tactic, or a way to mislead the public. There’s also “medical gaslighting,” when a health care professional dismisses a patient’s symptoms or illness as “all in your head.”
煤气灯是施虐者经常使用的令人发指的工具,政客和其他新闻人物也经常使用。它可能发生在恋人之间,更广泛的家庭内部和朋友之间。这可能是公司的策略,也可能是误导公众的一种方式。还有“医疗煤气灯”,指的是医疗保健专业人员将病人的症状或疾病斥为“全是你的幻觉”。 

Despite its relatively recent prominence — including “Gaslighter,” The Chicks' 2020 album featuring the rousingly angry titular single — the word was brought to life more than 80 years ago with “Gas Light,” a 1938 play by Patrick Hamilton.
尽管这个词的出现相对较晚——包括The Chicks在2020年的专辑“Gaslighter”,其中收录了这首令人愤怒的同名单曲——但这个词在80多年前由帕特里克·汉密尔顿1938年的戏剧“Gas Light”赋予了生命。 

It birthed two film adaptations in the 1940s. One, George Cukor's “Gaslight” in 1944, starred Ingrid Bergman as Paula Alquist and Charles Boyer as Gregory Anton. The two marry after a whirlwind romance and Gregory turns out to be a champion gaslighter. Among other instances, he insists her complains over the constant dimming of their London townhouse's gaslights is a figment of her troubled mind. It wasn't.
它在20世纪40年代催生了两部改编电影。其中之一是1944年乔治·库克的《煤气灯》,英格丽·褒曼饰演宝拉·阿尔奎斯特,查尔斯·博耶饰演格雷戈里·安东。两人在旋风式恋爱后结婚,结果发现格雷戈里擅长使用煤油灯。其中一个例子是,宝拉抱怨他们伦敦别墅的煤气灯总是变暗,他坚持认为这都是她心烦意乱的臆想。事实并非如此。

The death of Angela Lansbury in October drove some interest in lookups of the word, Sokolowski said. She played Nancy Oliver, a young maid hired by Gregory and told not to bother his “high-strung” wife.
索科洛夫斯基说,安吉拉·兰斯伯里10月份去世后,人们开始关注这个词的搜索。她扮演南希·奥利弗,格雷戈里雇用的年轻女仆,并被告知不要打扰他“紧张”的妻子。

The term gaslighting was later used by mental health practitioners to clinically describe a form of prolonged coercive control in abusive relationships.
“煤气灯”一词后来被心理健康从业者用来临床描述虐待关系中一种长期的强制控制形式。 

“There is this implication of an intentional deception,” Sokolowski said. “And once one is aware of that deception, it's not just a straightforward lie, as in, you know, I didn't eat the cookies in the cookie jar. It's something that has a little bit more devious quality to it. It has possibly an idea of strategy or a long-term plan.”
索科洛夫斯基说:“这意味着故意欺骗。”“一旦一个人意识到这种欺骗,它就不仅仅是一个简单的谎言,就像你知道我没有吃饼干罐里的饼干。这是一个有点狡猾的东西。它可能有一个战略或长期计划的想法。”

Merriam-Webster, which logs 100 million pageviews a month on its site, chooses its word of the year based solely on data. Sokolowski and his team weed out evergreen words most commonly looked up to gauge which word received a significant bump over the year before.
韦氏词典网站每月的网页浏览量达到1亿次,它选择年度词汇完全是基于数据。索科洛夫斯基和他的团队剔除了最常被查阅的常青词汇,以判断哪些词汇比前一年的使用量大幅增加。

They don't slice and dice why people look up words, which can be anything from quick spelling and definition checks to some sort of attempt at inspiration or motivation. Some of the droves who looked up “gaslighting” this year might have wanted to know, simply, if it's one or two words, or whether it's hyphenated.
他们不会去分析人们为什么要查单词,可以是快速的拼写和定义检查,也可以是某种激发灵感或动机的尝试。今年查过“gaslighting”的人可能想知道,它是简单的一个或两个单词,还是它有连字符。

“Gaslighting,” Sokolowski said, spent all of 2022 in the top 50 words looked up on merriam-webster.com to earn top dog word of the year status. Last year's pick was "vaccine." Rounding out this year's Top 10 are:
索科洛夫斯基说,“煤气灯”整个2022年都在位于韦氏词典网站搜索的前50个单词之列,并赢得了年度热词的地位。去年的年度词汇是“疫苗”。排在今年前十的还有: 

— “Oligarch,” driven by Russia's invasion of Ukraine.
“Oligarch”,被俄罗斯入侵乌克兰所驱使。

— “Omicron,” the persistent COVID-19 variant and the 15th letter of the Greek alphabet.
“Omicron”,持续存在的新冠病毒变种,是希腊字母表的第15个字母。 

— “Codify,” as in turning abortion rights into federal law.
“Codify”,比如把堕胎权变成联邦法律。 

— “Queen consort,” what King Charles' wife, Camilla is newly known as.
“Queen consort”,查尔斯国王的妻子卡米拉的新称呼。 

— “Raid,” as in the search of former President Donald Trump's Mar-a-Lago home.
“Raid”,比如搜查前总统唐纳德·川普的海湖庄园。 

— “Sentient,” with lookups brought on by Google canning the engineer who claimed an unreleased AI system had become sentient.
“Sentient”,谷歌带来的查询,解雇了声称一个未发布的AI系统已经有感觉的工程师。 

— “Cancel culture,” enough said.
“Cancel culture”,不用再解释了。 

— “LGBTQIA,” for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning, intersex, and asexual, aromantic or agender.
“LGBTQIA”,指女同性恋、男同性恋、双性恋、变性人、酷儿或质疑者、双性人、无性、浪漫或性别。 

— “Loamy,” which many Wordle users tried back in August, though the right word that day was “clown.”
“Loamy”,许多Wordle用户在8月份用过这个词,但当时正确的词是“小丑”。










 

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