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高三教案 第467期
发布时间:2012-10-22

 

词义猜测题技巧点拨
近年来全国统一高考中加大了对考生猜词义能力的考查,因此,掌握一定的猜词技巧,对突破高考阅读理解、提高我们的英语语言能力都有非常重要的意义。本期有三篇文章都涉及词义猜测,那么解答词义猜测题主要有哪些技巧呢?
1、注意构词法:分析合成词或派生词的前后缀,从已知部分推测新词的词性和词义。
    2、研读上下文:根据上下文情境、上下文的指代关系、同义关系、同位关系、对比、转折或因果关系等线索来确定词义。
 
实战演练:
 
Ø         报纸三版文章:Helping hands (P3)
While Jack has mentored (辅导) younger students, he has also helped peers who struggled in school. Michelle said would often stay up late at night, putting his own homework on hold, so he could help a friend who had a question about Spanish, science or math.
3. The underlined phrase “putting his own homework on hold” in Paragraph 10 means _____.
A. finishing his homework first  
B. putting off his homework
C. having difficulty finishing his homework
D. taking a long time to complete his homework
 
答案B。利用上下文的因果关系解题。由该段”Jack would often stay up late at night, putting his own homework on hold, so he could help a friend…”可知,他putting his own homework on hold,这样才有时间帮助指导他的朋友学习,但是因为他把自己的作业putting on hold,他又得熬夜来做,所以putting his own homework on hold表示“他把自己做作业的时间暂时搁下、延期”,所以选B
 
Ø         报纸五版文章Study of sacred stones (P5)
The stones may look similar but under the scanner, the stones facing northeast were carefully shaped and cleaned with stone hammers. Their original rough brown surfaces were removed to reveal a brighter inner layer so that the stones would glisten (闪闪发亮) in the sunlight…
Builders made sure the view from this side was the most eye-catching on the two special days – midsummer and midwinter – when the sunlight shone in that direction.
“Now we can see how the utmost (极度的) care and attention was devoted to ensuring the pristine appearance of Stonehenge for those completing their final approach to the monument along the solstitial axis (冬夏至日照中轴线),” Clive Ruggles, professor at the University of Leicester, UK, told The Guardian.
4. The underlined word pristine in Paragraph 7 is closest in meaning to ____.
A. strange           B. different C. beautiful             D. unchanged
 
答案C。根据上下文逻辑以及同义关系解题。本题要结合上文的”under the scanner, the stones facing northeast were carefully shaped and cleaned with stone hammers… so that the stones would glisten (闪闪发亮) in the sunlight”以及”Builders made sure the view from this side was the most eye-catching on the two special days”来判断,当年建造者花费巨大的精力与心血来确保巨石阵在冬夏至的这两天能呈现非常壮美的景象,所以可以推知pristine在这里的意思与eye-catching相近,故答案为C
 
Ø         报纸六版文章:Timeless tango (P6)
The first time I went tango dancing I was too intimidated to get out on the dance floor. I stayed on the sidelines. The fancy footwork confused me. Dont make a fool of yourself, I thought. Just watch.
2. What does the underlined word “intimidated” in the fifth paragraph mean?
A. Shy.        B. Scared.          C. Eager.                   D. Bored.
答案B。利用上下文的因果关系解题。作者”too intimidated”导致的结果是:I stayed on the sidelines. The fancy footwork confused me”,再结合作者的心理活动”Dont make a fool of yourself. Just watch. “可以猜出,intimidated的意思应该是”害怕的,胆怯的”。
 
高考链接:
2012年高考英语试题(大纲卷)
阅读理解:Passage A:
In parts of Africa, though, people and animals looking for honey have a strange and unexpected helper -- a little bird called a honey guide.
The honey guide does not actually like honey, but it does like the wax (蜂蜡) in the beehives (蜂房). The little bird cannot reach this wax, which is deep inside the bees nest. So, when it finds a suitable nest, it looks for someone to help it. The honey guide gives a loud cry that attracts the attention of both passing animals and people. Once it has their attention, it flies through the forest, waiting from time to time for the curious animal or person as it leads them to the nest. When they finally arrive at the nest, the follower reaches in to get at the delicious honey as the bird patiently waits and watches. Some of the honey, and the wax, always falls to the ground, and this is when the honey guide takes its share.
 
57. What do the words “the follower” in Paragraph 2 refer to?
A. A bee.               B. A bird.                  C. A honey seeker.        D. A beekeeper.
【答案】利用上下文的指代关系解题。第一段最后一句话提到了”people and animals looking for honey have a strange and unexpected helper”,第二段详细解释了The honey guide如何帮助people and animals looking for honey找到蜂蜜:The honey guide gives a loud cry… Once it has their attention, it flies through the forest… When they finally arrive at the nest, the follower reaches in to get at the delicious honey as the bird patiently waits and watches. 当the follower赶过来取蜂蜜时, The honey guide只是耐心等待,所以可知这里的the follower就是上文提到的people and animals looking for honey,所以答案为C。
 
阅读理解:Passage D:
The multiplication tables (乘法口诀表) are an exception to the general rule that we forget rather quickly the things that we learn in school, because they are another of the things we overlearn in childhood.
70. What does the word “they” in Paragraph 4 refer to?
A. Commonly accepted rules.
B. The multiplication tables.
C. Things easily forgotten.
D. School subjects.
【答案】利用上下文的指代关系解题。上文提到我们通常容易忘记在学校里所学的东西,但乘法口诀表是例外,因为它们是我们儿时过度学习的又一样东西,所以they在这里指代乘法口诀表,故选B。
 
阅读理解:Passage E:
¨         Try hands-on science. Visit one of the many hands-on science museums around the country. These science play-lands are great fun for kids and grown-ups alike. They’ll keep your child mentally and physically active the whole day through while pushing buttons, experimenting, and building. When everyone is tired, enjoy a fun family science show, commonly found in these museums.
 
74. What does “hands-on science” mean in the last paragraph?
A. Science games designed by kids.
B. Learning science by doing things.
C. A show of kids’ science work.
D. Reading science books.
 
【答案】利用下文的同位关系解题。由下文的进一步解释说明“They’ll keep your child mentally and physically active the whole day through while pushing buttons, experimenting, and building.”可以推知,这种科学指的是通过做实验、搭建东西等来学习科学,所以答案为B。
 
2012年高考英语试题(北京卷)
阅读理解:Passage B:
Peanuts to This
Weeks later, standing before this unfriendly mass, I was totally lost. Oh well, I lowered the paper and sat down at my desk, burning to find out what I had done wrong. As a classmate began his report, it all became clear, “My report is on George Washington, the man who started the American Revolution.” The whole world became quite! How could I know that she meant that George Washington?
62.        The underlined word “burning” in Para. 3 probably means _____.
A. annoyed      B. ashamed      C. ready       D. eager
【答案】利用上下文的因果关系解题。第一段作者描述了自己发言时同学和老师的反应“Proudly reading my words, I glanced around the room, only to find my classmates bearing big smiles on their faces and tears in their eyes. Confused, I glanced toward my stone-faced teacher.”作者对这一情况困惑不解,那么当然迫切地想知道究竟是怎么回事,所以burning在这里表示“强烈的,迫切的”,故选D。

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