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高三教案 第468期
发布时间:2012-10-29

 

事实细节题技巧点拨
事实细节题题型特点
Ø        旨在考查考生对文章(或某一段落)中的一些特定细节或重要事实的辨认能力
Ø        高考英语阅读理解中占比重最大的一类题型。
 
细节题的分类
1. 直接事实题。
   答案与题目在表达形式和意义上直接吻合,一一对应,一目了然。这种属于浅层次的阅读试题,分数比例极少。
 
2. 间接事实题
   这类题需要我们在理解的基础上将有关内容系统化才能找到,比如计算、排序、是非判断、图形比较等。它又可分为:
 
间接事实题的类型
1)语言转述思考型。
    答案与题目在意义上运用了词义之间的转述关系,即正确选项是原文有关词语和句子的另一种表达。这种属于中档难度题,分数比例较大。
2)语意理解型。
   答案与题目之间存在着一定的逻辑联系,考生需要通过对上、下文进行判断、分析、归纳和整合,才能得出正确答案。这种属于较高难度的事实细节题,分数比例很大。
3)是非辨别型。
    这是一类综合事实细节理解题,出题形式常常是“三正一误”(三项正确,只有一项不符合原文内容)或“三误一正”(三项错误,只有一项符合原文内容)。
4)事实排序型。
    这是一类运用多项事实进行排序的事实细节理解题,要求根据动作发生的先后顺序、时间顺序或者句子之间的逻辑关系,找出事情发生、发展的正确顺序。
 
实战演练
报纸四版文章:UK driving test (P4)
   IN the UK, the number of young people taking their driving test has fallen by over 250,000 since 2005/06. There are several reasons for this, including the tough financial climate. With prices, university fees and unemployment rising, young people are watching what they spend. Learning to drive and running a car is often considered too expensive. But for those who do decide to learn, here’s what is involved…
 
2. What has discouraged young people in the UK from learning to drive?
 A. Regulations at universities.
 B. The increasing number of road accidents. 
 C. The fact that learning to drive costs a lot of money.
D. The fact that the driving test has become harder to pass.
  
【答案】 2. C。间接事实细节题——语言转述思考型。由第一段的“With prices, university fees and unemployment rising, young people are watching what they spend. Learning to drive and running a car is often considered too expensive.”可知和C选项The fact that learning to drive costs a lot of money”表达的意思一样。其中ABD都属于无中生有的选项。
 
报纸五版文章:Magic of misdirection (P5)
 (最后一段)Magicians employ this tactic (招数), what they call “misdirection”, in almost every one of their acts. They direct our attention somewhere else using comedy and music, which can make us miss stuff during the performance.
 
4. Why do magicians usually use comedy and music when they play magic tricks?
A. To get viewers to stay focused on the show.
B. To make the show more fun and exciting.
C. To draw viewers’ attention away from a secret action.
D. To create information gaps between magicians and viewers.
  
【答案】 4. C间接事实细节题——语言转述思考型由最后一段的“They direct our attention somewhere else using comedy and music, which can make us miss stuff during the performance.”可知答案为C。其中,A与事实相反;BD都是无中生有。
 
报纸六版文章:Survive hardships (P6)
   …The good doctor had some interesting theories about planting trees. He believed in the principle: “No pain, no gain”. He never watered his new trees, an attitude which flew in the face of conventional wisdom.
   Once I asked why and he told me that watering plants spoiled them because it made them grow weaker. He said you have to make things tough for the trees so that only the strongest survive.
   He talked about how watering trees made them develop shallow roots and how, if they were not watered, trees would grow deep roots in search of moisture (水分).
   So Doctor Gibbs would plant an oak (橡树) and, instead of watering it every morning, he’d beat it with a rolled-up newspaper. I asked him why he did that, and he said it was to get the tree’s attention.
 
1. With the trees planted, Doctor Gibbs would _____.
A. not show them too much attention
B. talk to them to get their attention
C. keep watering them every morning
D. beat them to make them grow deep roots
 
【答案】 1. A。间接事实细节题——语意理解型。第三到第六段里提到吉布斯医生种下树以后不给它们浇水,这样它们就能长出更粗的根从而有助于它们的生长。他有时还拿报纸抽打它们说是为了引起它们的注意,所以BCD都与原文信息不符。总的来说,吉布斯医生给与树的关注并不是很多,所以A项正确。
 
 Every night before I go to bed, I check on my two sons. I stand over them and watch their little bodies. I often pray (祈祷) that their lives will be easy. But lately I’ve been thinking that it’s time to change my prayer. I know my children are going to encounter hardship. There’s always a cold wind blowing somewhere. What we need to do is to pray for deep roots, so when the rains fall and the winds blow, we won’t be torn apart.
 
4. Which of the following, according to the author, is a better prayer for his two sons?
A. I want them to have an easy life, without too much to worry about.
B. I want them to meet people like Dr Gibbs in the future.
C. I want them to have good luck, encountering less hardship in their life.
D. I want them to be able to withstand the rain and wind in their lives.
 
【答案】 4. D。间接事实细节题——语言转述思考型从最后一段的“What we need to do is to pray for deep roots, so when the rains fall and the winds blow, we won’t be torn apart”可以得此答案。
 
技巧点拨
通过以上事实细节题的分析,我们可以归纳出做这类题的思路:
    一般是先用寻读法找出与问题相关的词语或句子,再对相关的部分进行细读与分析,找出正确答案。
 
解题时注意以下几点:
1. 顺序性原则:一般说来, 题序与其题眼在文章中的顺序相同。例如:实战演练(三)中第4题的答案信息在第1题的答案信息之后。
2. 定位信息点:通过寻读法(scanning), 用题干中的关键词在文中搜索, 迅速确定相关词句或信息点所在的位置, 缩小阅读范围。题干中可用来在文中搜索的关键词可能是专有名词、数词、实体名词, 以及这些词的同义表达等。
3. 理解信息点:在找到关键词句后, 要仔细阅读, 准确理解, 对照选项, 看哪个选项的意思与之最接近。
4. 排除干扰项:在作出选择的过程中, 要善于辨别真伪, 排除干扰, 不断缩小范围, 选出正确答案, 这就是我们常说的排除法。干扰项一般具有以下特征:
1)杜撰事实, 无中生有。文中根本找不到任何相关信息, 完全由命题人所捏造。
 
2) 偷梁换柱, 以假乱真。采用原文中的句式和大部分词汇, 但换了个别词, 改变了原意或范围。
3) 半真半假, 虚虚实实。干扰项与原文相关细节部分相同, 部分相悖。
4) 文不对题, 滥竽充数。干扰项是文中的事实细节, 但与题干要求不符。
 
高考链接
2011年高考英语试题(广东卷)
  (节选) In the animal kingdom, weakness can bring about aggression in other animal. This sometimes happens with humans also. But I have found that my weakness brings out the kindness in people. I see it every day when people hold doors for me, pour cream into my coffee, or help me to put on my coat. And I have discovered that it makes them happy.
   From my wheelchair experience, I see the best in people, but sometimes I feel sad because those who appear independent miss the kindness I see daily. They don’t get to see this soft side of others. Often, we try every way possible to avoid showing our weakness, which includes a lot of pretending. But only when we stop pretending we’re brave or strong do we allow people to show the kindness that’s in them.
 
26. The author has discovered that people will feel happy when ____.
A. they offer their help               B. they receive others’ help
C. they feel others’ kindness            D. they show their weakness
 
27. The author feels sad sometimes because _____.
A. he has a soft heart
B. he relies much on others
C. some people pretend to be kind
D. some people fail to see the kindness in others
 
【答案解析】
    根据顺序性原则, 26题可能在第1,27题可能在第2段。
    定位信息点:第26题用happy, 27题用sad作为关键词, 通过寻读, 找到26题的答题信息在第1段后面两句, 27题的答题信息在第2段第1句。
    理解信息点:第26, 1段最后一句中的it,指前句中的people hold doors for me, pour cream into my coffee, or help me to put on my coat, 人们的这些具体的行为可以概括为they offer their help, 故选A
语意转换方式:具体与概括。
 
27题:根据第二段首句中的I feel sad because those who appear independent miss the kindness I see daily (因为表现独立的那些人看不到我每天看到的别人的善意, 我感到悲哀), 对照选项, 只有D正确, 只是用some people替代了those who appear independent, fail to替代了miss
语意转换方式: 同义替换。
 
2011年高考英语试题(湖南卷)
   When first entered, Vanak Restaurant does not look like much of a restaurant, but once the pleasant smells of kabob (烤肉串) hit the senses, you are incapable of calling it anything less.
   Owned by a local couple, this Persian restaurant has an inviting, homelike atmosphere that many restaurants lack.
   The space is small with only a few dinning tables and nearly no decorationbut the environment is truly charming.
   Lying in a hardly noticeable street corner, the restaurant still attracts all customers, especially those experienced in the delights of Middle Eastern cooking.
   A common sight is that of old Persian men sitting in the corner talking loudly about world topics, watching news events on TV, drinking a black tea known as Persian chai, and reading local Persian newspapers all the while trying to finish off their plates piled with food.
The variety of food at the restaurant is limited, but the amount of each dish is fairly large. Most of the meals can serve two people and are under $10, so not only is it affordable but practical as well.
The food especially appeals to health­-conscious eaters because each dish is very healthy, made with limited fat and oil and served straight off the grill (烤肉架).
The main dish that the restaurant is popular for is its kabobs, which are different styles of grilled meat.
One delicious and extremely healthy dish is the Joojeh Kabob, which is made of grilled chicken pieces served with either rice or bread. Another great kabob is the Chelo Kabob, a kabob consisting of grilled beef.
Although the restaurant is small, the atmosphere and the food is delicious. It is a place that should not be overlooked.
 
Ø When first entered, Vanak Restaurant does not look like much of a restaurant, but once the pleasant smells of kabob (烤肉串) hit the senses, you are incapable of calling it anything less.
    Owned by a local couple, this Persian restaurant has an inviting, homelike atmosphere that many restaurants lack.
1. When first entering the restaurantone can find that it ____.
A. is splendidly decorated           B. has pleasant smells of kabobs
C. is crowded with dining tables D. looks like a common restaurant
 
【答案】 1. B。细节理解题。根据第一段“When first entered, Vanak Restaurant does not look like much of a restaurant, but once the pleasant smells of kabob hit the senses, you are incapable of calling it anything less.”可知一走进饭店,就可以闻到烤肉串的香味,故选B项。
 
Ø        A common sight is that of old Persian men sitting in the corner talking loudly about world topics, watching news events on TV, drinking a black tea known as Persian chai, and reading local Persian newspapers all the while trying to finish off their plates piled with food.
 
2. What activity is also mentioned apart from dining in the restaurant?
A. Watching news events on TV.
B. Drinking a kind of black coffee.
C. Reading local English newspapers
D. Discussing world topics in low voices
 
【答案】 2A 细节理解题。根据第五段A common sight is that of old Persian men sitting in the corner talking loudly about world topics, watching news events on TV, drinking a black tea可知在饭店除了吃饭外还可以看新闻,故A项正确。B项与drinking a black tea不符;C项与reading local Persian newspapers不符;D项与talking loudly about world topics不符。
 
Ø        The variety of food at the restaurant is limited, but the amount of each dish is fairly large. Most of the meals can serve two people and are under $10, so not only is it affordable but practical as well.
The food especially appeals to health-­conscious eaters because each dish is very healthy, made with limited fat and oil and served straight off the grill (烤肉架)
 
3. The food of the restaurant ______.
A. is served in small amounts
B. is rather expensive
C. is rich in variety
D. is very healthy
 
【答案】 3.D 细节理解题。根据第七段The food especially appeals to health-­conscious eaters because each dish is very healthy可知饭店的饭菜非常健康,故选D项。AC两项与第六段The variety of food at the restaurant is limited, but the amount of each dish is fairly large.不符;B项与第六段Most of the meals can serve two people and are under $10so not only is it affordable but practical as well.不符。
 
Ø        One delicious and extremely healthy dish is the Joojeh Kabob, which is made of grilled chicken pieces served with either rice or bread. Another great kabob is the Chelo Kabob, a kabob consisting of grilled beef.
 
4. What is the dish Joojeh Kabob mainly made of?
A. Rice.         B. Chicken.        
C. Bread.           D. Beef.
 
【答案】 4.B 细节理解题。根据第九段One delicious and extremely healthy dish is the Joojeh Kabob, which is made of grilled chicken pieces served with either rice or bread.可判断,这道菜主要由烤鸡肉块组成,故选B
 

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