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高三教案 第469期
发布时间:2012-11-05

 

主旨大意题的解题技巧
主旨大意题的命题特点
§一篇文章通常都会有一个中心或主题。高考阅读理解中的主旨大意题顾名思义就是考查我们把握文章中心思想或主题的能力。
§ 这类题往往针对短文或段落的subject(主题)、
    main idea(中心思想)、title(标题)或
    purpose(目的)拟题。
 
解题策略:
1.利用文体典型结构把握文章主旨。
    高考阅读理解题的文章大多在250—400词之间,篇幅较短,不可能浪费文字在兜圈子上。而且西方人写作往往习惯开门见山,尤其是在消息类新闻、说明文和议论文当中,直截了当提出介绍对象和议论观点的文章居多。然后文章会用一系列的细节描写支撑自己的主旨。
    因此,我们大体上可以从前几个段落中体会到作者的观点和态度。而高考趣闻轶事类的记叙文则通常在文中的议论抒情中点题
 
2.捕捉关键词来归纳段落的大意或文章主题。
所谓关键词,是指对理解和归纳段落大意起决定作用的词和词组。关键词以名词、动词、形容词等实词为主,通常会多次出现在段落当中。
同时,西方人写作喜欢用逻辑连接词(通常是并列连词和副词)来表明自己的思路,这种词汇我们可以称之为路标词。路标词用来指明上下文的逻辑关系,通常有转折、因果、并列、递进和例证等。例如:however表示转折关系,therefore表示因果关系,for example表示例证关系。
 
3.用略读的方式迅速把握文章主旨。
以尽可能快的速度阅读文章,寻找字面上或事实上的主要信息,利用文章的标题、文章首尾和各段开头,找出主题句及关键词,跳过某个部分或某些部分不读。
这个办法可以在读完之后还不太明确中心的时候使用,或者读两遍文章,第一遍略读,第二遍再根据题目细读。
 
实战演练:
Textspeak takes over (P3)
   YOU’VE probably grown accustomed to texting in the glow of a mobile phone screen. Well, there’s some good and bad news coming for those of you who spend hours speedily tapping messages to one another.
   The good news is that the hours you spend face-to-phone are paying off. You may have become fluent in a second language.
  The bad news, however, is that this language is texting. Worse still, there isn’t yet a texting section in your school exams, so you’ll need to work harder to recover the grammar skills you might be killing with every LOL and BRB (Be right back).
   A new study confirms what many parents suspect: The more kids send and receive texts, the poorer their grammar skills become…
 
1. What is main point of the article?
A. To report the popularity of texting among teens.
B. To introduce the effects of texting on grammar.
C. To inform us that texting is likely to become a second language for teens. 
D. To analyze how texting influences the culture of mobile communication.
 
   答案本文是一篇消息类新闻,前面三段提到了常发短信的导致的两种结果: 关键词如下:
   The good news: become fluent in a second language;
   The bad news: this language is texting;
   第四段阐明了新发现的内容:The more kids send and receive texts, the poorer their grammar skills become
   所以本文主要讲的是青少年用英语发短信过多对他们的英语语法技能的影响,所以答案为B
 
   Still, students have exams to worry about. Here’s a sample (范例) of the questions, so you can test yourself to see how texting has affected your grammar:
   1. During the flood, we (dranked, drank, drunk, drunked) bottled water.
  2. Fortunately, Jim’s name was (accepted, excepted) from the list of those who would have to clean bathrooms because he was supposed to go downtown to (accept, except) a reward for the German Club.
   3. The dress is so large that it is (lose, loose) on me when I wear it!
 
4. With the sample of the questions at the end of the article, the author intends to _____.
A. get teens to attach more importance to grammar exams
B. give some useful tips on how to pass a grammar exam
C. get teens to find out how much texting has affected their use of language
D. prove that teens’ routine of texting is changing their understanding of basic grammar
 
   答案本题考查作者的写作意图。由倒数第四段“Here’s a sample of the questions, so you can test yourself to see how texting has affected your grammar可以推知,作者设计这些问题就是为了让青少年看看收发短信对于他们的语法技能是否有影响,所以答案为C。
 
Listen before you smell (P5)
   IN the hit movie Jurassic Park you always know when a T-Rex, a giant meat-eating dinosaur, is coming. What gives it away? A T-Rex’s presence is felt before it appears because of its heavy, thudding footsteps.
   When we hear a deep and loud noise we associate it with a large object, even though the sound itself doesn’t have any size or weight. This is something our ancestors have done for centuries, so they could decide whether or not to run away based on how big an animal sounds without having to look at it.
  Our hearing and sight sometimes cooperate with each other to help us better understand the world ...
 
1. The author mentions the movie Jurassic Park at the beginning in order to ____.
A. show the scientific inspiration that comes from the movie
B. introduce the idea that our senses can be closely related
C. remind people to use sound to guess the size or weight of an object
D. show that many of our abilities developed during the process of evolution 
 
   答案文章开篇作者提到电影里人们听到恐龙的脚步声就能预料到它的到来,在第二段作者接着引出各个感官或有联系的话题。第三段阐明了新研究的结论:Our hearing and sight sometimes cooperate with each other to help us better understand the world. This is true with our other senses too. They work together more often than we realize。所以答案为B
 
 (Para 3) Our hearing and sight sometimes cooperate with each other to help us better understand the world. This is true with our other senses too. They work together more often than we realize, The Guardian reported.
 Two New York researchers, Daniel Wesson and Donald Wilson, discovered the unlikely pairing between hearing and smell when they were studying a special part of the brain known as the “olfactory tubercle”.
 …
 Following this discovery, Charles Spence and Anne-Sylvie Crisinel, professors from Oxford University in the UK, managed to take the experiment further. In their study, participants were asked to smell different kinds of wine and then match them to a musical instrument and pitch.   
 Researchers also found that listening to different sounds can change our other senses – for example, our sense of taste…
 
4. What is the main point of the article?
A. Our senses have developed and work together because of evolution.
B. Different senses cooperate more than they work independently.
C. Different senses work together with and on each other.
D. Some scientific discoveries are made by chance.
 
答案第三段阐明了新研究的结论:我们的各种感官相互配合以便我们更好地了解世界( our senses work together more often than we realize 。下文接着提到了几个相关的实验以及三对感官之间的联系,所以C的说法最贴切。B项有点迷惑性,但是文章中并没有比较各种感官独自工作和合作的频率谁更多,所以不对。
 
Drawn to a cello (P6)
  The cello was something I couldn’t do. Yet each Tuesday I improved slightly more. At midnight in an upstairs room of my city house, , I would send long notes from Alwin Schroeder’s 170 Foundation Studies for Violoncello through the open windows. The footfalls of unseen passers-by would curiously stop, and then begin again in haste.
    Riding home on the bus one snowy night, studying Mozart’s C-Major Quintet, I felt the page burst into music in my hands and suddenly all five parts blossomed in harmony in my head. The fellow across the aisle stared. I met his glance with tears. Could he hear it too? No. He got off at the next stop.
 
2. Why did the author mention his ride home on that snowy night?
A. To show how hard he practiced playing the cello.
B. To mark the milestone in his cello learning process.
C. To introduce his interesting encounter with the strange man.
D. To indicate it was Mozart’s works that inspired him to improve.
 
答案本题考查作者的写作意图。上文提到了作者每周二学琴,深夜练琴,每天都在进步,而第五段里作者之所以提到那个下雪的晚上,是因为那天晚上他对拉大提琴有了全新的感觉,感觉自己有所突破(I felt the page burst into music in my hands and suddenly all five parts blossomed in harmony in my head. ),所以答案为B
 
  The cello was something I couldn’t do. Yet each Tuesday I improved slightly more. At midnight in an upstairs room of my city house, I would send long notes from Alwin Schroeder’s 170 Foundation Studies for Violoncello through the open windows. The footfalls of unseen passers-by would curiously stop, and then begin again in haste.
   Riding home on the bus one snowy night, studying Mozart’s C-Major Quintet, I felt the page burst into music in my hands and suddenly all five parts blossomed in harmony in my head…
   ... Now, as the TV camera pushes in close to a famous cellist’s face, I recognize that smile as a cover for serious determination. I pick up my cello, screw tight the hairs of the bow and begin drawing. As good as I wanted to be, I am as good as I’m going to get and that is good enough.
 
4. What is the main message the author conveys in the story?
A. A good beginning is the key to success.
B. You are never too old to learn something new.
C. It takes devotion and determination to succeed.
D. A good teacher knows how to inspire his or her students.
 
答案本题考查文章主旨。本文作者以自己学习大提琴时刻苦练习,不断进步的经历(每周二坚持学琴、深夜拉琴、公共汽车上学习莫扎特的《C大调五重奏》),以及后来观看一名知名大提琴家演奏的感想“I recognize that smile as a cover for serious determination”向读者展示,要想成功必须认真投入和持之以恒,所以答案为C
 
高考链接
2012年高考英语试题(北京卷)
(Passage D - Para 2-3)... To Mr. Sauven, these “ecosystem services” far outweigh the gains from exploitation.
       Lee Lane, a visiting fellow at the Hudson Institute, takes the opposing view. He acknowledges that wildernesses do provide useful services, such as water conservation. But that is not, he argues, a reason to avoid all human presence, or indeed commercial and industrial exploitation. There are ever more people on the Earth, and they reasonably and rightfully want to have better lives, rather than merely struggle for survival. While the ways of using resources have improved, there is still a growing need for raw materials, and some wildernesses contain them in abundance. If they can be tapped without reducing the services those wildernesses provide, the argument goes, there is no further reason not to do so. Being untouched is not, in itself, a characteristic worth valuing above all others.
 
68. What is the main idea of Para. 3?
A. The exploitation is necessary for the poor people.
B. Wildernesses cannot guarantee better use of raw materials.
C. Useful services of wildernesses are not the reason for no exploitation.
D. All the characteristics concerning the exploitation should be treated equally.
 
答案作者在第三段主要论述可以开发荒野的观点,并通过Lee Lane 的视角“He acknowledges that wildernesses do provide useful services, such as water conservation. But that is not, he argues, a reason to avoid all human presence, or indeed commercial and industrial exploitation.”说明荒野能提供有用的服务并不能成为不可以开发它的理由,所以答案为C
 
2012年高考英语试题(浙江卷)
   Easter (复活节) is still a great day for worship, candy in baskets and running around the yard finding eggs, but every year it gets quite a bit worse for bunnies.
   And no, not because the kids like to pull their ears. The culprit is climate change, and some researchers found that rising temperatures are having harmful effects on at least five species of rabbit in the US.
      
41. The writer mentions Easter at the beginning of the passage in order to ____.      
A. show the importance of Easter Day         
B. introduce the issue about bunnies
C. remind people of Easter traditions 
D. discuss the relationship between Easter and bunnies
 
答案本题考查作者写作意图。
本文第一段提到了复活节兔子gets quite a bit worse;第二段分析导致兔子处境变糟的原因:some researchers found that rising temperatures are having harmful effects on at least five species of rabbit in the US. 下文接着介绍受气候变暖影响最大的五种兔子。
根据第一段在全文中的作用可以看出,本段主要目的是导入主题,即:关于兔子受气候影响的问题,所以答案为B
 
2012年高考英语试题(大纲卷)
Honey (蜂蜜) from the African forest is not only a kind of natural sugar, it is also delicious. Most people, and many animals, like eating it. However, the only way for them to get that honey is to find a wild bees' nest () and take the honey from it. Often, these nests are high up in trees, and it is difficult to find them. In parts of Africa, though, people and animals looking for honey have a strange and unexpected helper -- a little bird called a honey guide.
The honey guide does not actually like honey, but it does like the wax (蜂蜡) in the beehives (蜂房) … Some of the honey, and the wax, always falls to the ground, and this is when the honey guide takes its share.
    Scientists do not know why the honey guide likes eating the wax, but it is very determined in its efforts to get it. The birds seem to be able to smell wax from a long distance away. They will quickly arrive whenever a beekeeper is taking honey from his beehives, and will even enter churches when beeswax candles are being lit.
 
59. What can be the best title for the text?
A. Wild Bees                    C. Beekeeping in Africa
B. Wax and Honey                D. Honey-Lover's Helper
 
答案本题考查文章标题。本文是一篇说明文,主要是介绍了一种能够帮助人们找到蜂蜜的鸟:a honey guide
    第一段通过叙述引出a honey guide;第二段叙述honey guide获取蜂蜡是过程;第三段科学家们对honey guide感到的困惑。根据第一段的“people and animals looking for honey have a strange and unexpected helper -- a little bird called a honey guide” 可以推知Honey-Lover‘s Helper指的就是honey guide,因此答案为D

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