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高三教案 第481期


Doing science his way (P3)
I. Fast-reading
Read the text fast and find out what is mainly about.
Key: It’s about how Jack Andraka created a simple and inexpensive test to detect pancreatic cancer at its earliest stage of development.
II. Specific reading
Read the text again and choose the best answer for the following quiz.
Choose the best answer:
1. What inspired Andraka to work on pancreatic cancer?
A. His teacher’s encouragement.
B. The death of one of his family friends.
C. His parents’ suffering from the disease.
D. His strong interest in medical research.
2. In what way is Andraka’s invention revolutionary?
A. He proved that nano-particles could be used to detect pancreatic cancer at an early stage.
B. He discovered a solution which can make patients with pancreatic cancer fully recover. 
C. He invented an effective way to help patients to lower levels of mesothelin in their blood.
D. His method for detecting pancreatic cancer is simpler, cheaper and faster than current methods.
3. How did Andraka collect most of the information he needed for his research?
A. By surfing the Web.
B. By looking things up in libraries.
C. With the help of a professor at Johns Hopkins University.
D. By interviewing researchers around the country.
4. Which of the following can best describe Andraka?
A. He’s good at persuading people.          
B. He is addicted to advanced technologies.
C. Once he sets a goal, he is determined to achieve it.               
D. In his teachers’ eyes, he is imaginative and attentive.
1. B。由第一段最后一句话以及第二段第一句话可知B为正确答案。
2. D。由第二段可知Andraka的方法的突破主要在于它是一种“a simple and inexpensive test to detect (查出) pancreatic cancer at its earliest stage of development”,故选D。A项表述不对,nano-particles并不能用于检测胰腺癌,文中提到它只是说这是Andraka之前研究的重点是nano-particles对环境的影响,后来兴趣转移到研究检测胰腺癌的方法。B的“fully recover”不对;文中并没有提到Andraka的方法能有效帮助病人降低他们血液里的mesothelin,故C不对。
3. A。由第三段可知A为正确答案。
4. C。由文中描写的Andraka给200个研究人员发信联系实验室,以及他坚持不懈地做实验研究“For six months, he worked on a solution until he had enough proof that it worked.”可知C项描述最贴切。
III. Language study
1. This made him take a sharp turn from his interest at the time: studying the impact that nano-particles – tiny particles found in consumer products like makeup and sunscreen – have on the environment.
本句的主干是冒号前的句子,冒号后的分词短语是进一步描述他的兴趣是什么:studying the impact that nano-particles… have on the environment,即研究纳米粒子对环境的影响。两个破折号之间的成分是nano-particles的同位语,补充说明其特点,是一种在化妆品、防晒霜等消费商品中能找到的超细微粒take a sharp turn 急转弯。
2. From the Internet, Andraka learned that people with pancreatic cancer have elevated (提升) levels of a protein called mesothelin in their blood, and that early detection is key to increasing the chances of survival.
本句中that引导的宾语从句中包含由and连接的并列句,Andraka从互联网上了解到,患胰腺癌的人血液里的一种叫做mesothelin 蛋白质的水平会增高,而且尽早查出病情是增加患者幸存几率的关键因素。Be key to sth/doing sth 是……的关键。
3. Starting from a $1,500 (around 9,370 yuan) budget, he began growing cells and other materials – once again, he got these from the Internet – using the equipment in the lab.
本句主干是:he began growing cells and other materials。动词-ing短语using the equipment in the lab用作方式状语。两个破折号之间的成分once again, he got these from the Internet是插入语,补充说明Andraka获得信息的渠道。
Andraka said the Internet opens doors for people with creative ideas.
短语open doors to/for sb/sth表示“为某人/某事提供机会或方便”。例如:1) I think your new job will really open doors for you. 2) The meeting opened the door to real peace talks between the two sides.
Why are geeks so chic? (P4)
I. Warming up
 The Big Bang Theory is a popular American sitcom. Have you seen it before? If so, what do you think of the show?
II. Fast reading
Read the text and find the structure of the text.
Part I (Para 1-2): How popular the show is.
Part II (Para 3-4): Reasons behind its popularity. 
Part III (Para 5-6): Its influences on the real world. 
III. Specific reading
Read the text and complete the quiz below.
Choose the best answer:
1. Which of the following statements about Big Bang is TRUE?
A. The show is the second most popular sitcom in the US at present.
B. The number of its viewers has increased by three times since it first came out.
C. It inspired a group of biologists in Brazil to discover a new bee species.
D. It has somewhat encouraged a number of UK students to take an interest in physics.      
2. What does the underlined word “fit the bill” in Paragraph 3 mean?
A. Become wealthy.
B. Are just what is needed.
C. Go against what is expected.
D. Compete to pay for something.
3. How does Big Bang attract so many viewers according to the article?
A. It focuses on coffee-house culture like Friends once did.
B. It teaches viewers some scientific knowledge in every episode.
C. It is about geeks and talks about popular culture and entertainment.
D. It involves some classical sci-fi stories and satirizes the world of science.
1. D。根据倒数第二段可以得此答案。由第一段可知,这是《生活大爆炸》第二次赢得人民选择奖,而不是说它是第二受欢迎的电视剧,A不对。第二段里提到《生活大爆炸》的观众在六年后从831万增长到1861万,所以没有增长三倍,B有误。根据倒数第二段的“in Jan 2013, a group of biologists in Brazil named a bee species after Sheldon’s catchphrase…”,科学家们是以Sheldon经常说的一个词给某种蜜蜂命名,所以C也不对。
2. B。第三段主要是分析《生活大爆炸》受观众喜爱的原因。前面提到现在呆子文化正流行,然后说里面的主人公____。所以这里的意思应该是该剧中的主人公正好符合观众这方面的需求。
3. C。文章的第三和第四段主要分析《生活大爆炸》受欢迎的原因。第三段提到的是现在正盛行书呆子文化;第四段是该电视剧里涉及了一些当下流行的科幻电视和电影,故选C。
IV. 长难句分析
1. According to Dan Martin, TV critic for The Guardian, the show’s focus on nerd (书呆子) culture “speaks to its viewers” in a way that Friends did in the 1990s with its focus on coffee-house culture.
本句描述了《生活大爆炸》受欢迎的原因之一,因为它所专注的书呆子文化,就像《老友记》专注的咖啡厅文化一样,让观众产生共鸣。短语speak to表示“让某人产生共鸣”,即:When something touches your heart and you feel impressed by it, you might say “it really speaks to me”. 例如:That painting really speaks to me.
2. In November 2011, The Guardian reported that “there was a 10 percent increase [in the UK] in the number of students accepted to [university physics programs] between 2008-09, when The Big Bang Theory was first broadcast in the UK, and 2010-11.”
本句中that引导的宾语从句的主干是:there was a 10 percent increase [in the UK] in the number of students。过去分词短语accepted to…用作后置定语,修饰students, 在该后置定语中,when引导的非限制性定语从句修饰先行词2008-09。句意为:201111月,《卫报》报道说:2008-09年间,《生活大爆炸》第一次在英国上映。而在2008-092010-2011期间,英国被录取就读大学物理项目的学生的人数有10%的增长。
3. Sounds like geeks the world over have a new rallying cry (集结号). Thanks, Sheldon.
短语the world over相当于throughout the world, all over the world, here and there
They come from the sky (P5)
I. Warming up
Read the words below and guess what happened around Anna Kolesnikova.
It was just after sunrise on Feb 15. Anna Kolesnikova, 31, was getting ready for work when she looked out her window and saw a big burst of light in the sky. Suddenly she heard a loud explosion and the door to her balcony flew open. All of the car alarms on the street were going off.
II. Fast reading
Read the text fast and check if your prediction is correct.
Key: It was a meteor falling to Earth.
III. Specific reading
1. Read the text again and complete the quiz below.
Choose the best answer:
1) The underlined word “bewildered” in the first paragraph probably means ____.
A. annoyed            B. confused           C. disappointed            D. curious
2) When the meteor fell to Earth in Russia, ____.
A. most of it was forced to land in remote areas to reduce destruction
B. it caused explosions and resulted in great loss of life and destruction of buildings
C. the shockwave from its explosion caused most of the damage and injuries
D. it remained in one piece and traveled much faster than a bullet
3) By mentioning 2012 DA14 in Paragraph 5, the author intends to ____.
A. show that objects fall from space frequently
B. show that there are concerns about objects falling from space
C. inform readers about constant threats to Earth
D. compare the asteroid and the meteor that hit Russia
4) What can we infer from the text?
A. The number of meteors falling toward Earth may be on the rise in the future.
B. Most of the meteors falling toward Earth are destructive and uncontrollable.
C. There are warning systems for objects falling from space in certain countries.
D. There are no existing technologies that can bring down meteors falling toward Earth.
1) B。从第一段Anna Kolesnikova在陨石坠落时的反应“Kolesnikova crouched down in fear”“Just like Kolesnikova, residents…, were all thrown into a panic.”可知她当时惊慌失措,不知道当时发生了什么事情,所以此处bewildered的意思是“困惑不解的”。在那种惊慌失措的情况下,她已不再镇静,更多的是困惑而不是好奇,故不能选D。
2) C。由第三段可知该陨石并没有被人为迫使降落在偏远地区,故A不对。由第三段最后两句话可知,这场事故中1200余人受伤,但没有人员死亡,故B项的“great loss of life”不对;陨石爆炸产生的冲击波是导致房屋损害人员受伤的主要原因,故C正确;陨石在坠落过程中爆炸了,所以D项的“remained in one piece”不对。
3) B。作者这里提到2012 DA14,主要是为了说明在俄罗斯坠落的陨石在全世界并非仅此一例,以表明这紧接着发生的两起事件已经引起了人们广泛的关注,故选B。C项的constant不对,文中提到了两起,并不表示他们对地球产生不断的威胁。
4) D。A项文中没有提及;由最后一段最后一句话可知大多数陨石坠落时并不会对地球产生威胁,故B不对;由倒数第二段的“Dmitry Rogozin, Russia’s deputy prime minister, called for an international push to create a warning system”可知现在世界上还没有国家有相关的警报系统,故C不对。又由该段最后一句话可知D正确。
2. Find from the text more details about the meteor event in Russia.
Time: on Feb 15
Place: in Chelyabinsk, in Russia
Characteristics of the meteor: It’s said to have entered the atmosphere at a speed of 52,000 kilometers per hour and exploded into tiny pieces before reaching the ground. It weighed about 10 tons and was probably made of iron.
Damages caused by the meteor: The force from the explosion was so strong that it blew out windows and damaged buildings. Nearly 1,200 people were injured by flying glass, but fortunately no one was struck directly by a falling piece of meteor.
IV. 佳句诵读
1. Just like Kolesnikova, residents of Chelyabinsk, the Russian city 1,500 kilometers east of Moscow, were all thrown into a panic.
Be thrown into a panic的意思是“一下子恐慌起来”,这个表达生动形象,值得背诵。动词throw在这里意为“使(某人)处于某种状态”。例如:We were thrown into confusion by the news.
2. But what had actually happened was beyond their wildest guesses – it was a meteor (陨石) falling to Earth.
Beyond their wildest guesses表示“难以猜测,超过了他们的猜测能力”。Beyond表示“超过,超越”,类似的短语还有:beyond one’s imagination 无法想象;beyond description 难以形容。

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