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初一教案 第699期
发布时间:2020-05-18

40/699期初一教案

作者:高荣华

 

Past life uncovered (P4-5)

十大考古新发现,揭秘古代人的生活

Do you know?

Where did the earliest humans come from?

What kind of life did our ancestors (祖先) live?

 

We learn more about these things every time we make new archaeological (考古的) findings.

 

On May 5, China listed its top 10 archaeological discoveries (发现) of 2019.

The discoveries show us how our ancestors lived. (The Importance of the Discoveries)

 

Jiegedong Paleolithic cave site, Shaanxi  
陕西疥疙洞旧石器时代洞穴遗址

Many people believe that all ancestors of modern humans came from Africa. But now, we may need to rethink about this.

rethink: to think (about) again

再思考,重新考虑

What does this refer指代 to?

 

Last year, Chinese archaeologists found human remains (残骸) and stone tools from 15,000 to 100,000 years ago at the Jiegedong Paleolithic cave site.

What did the findings show?

The findings showed that humans have a long history of living in East Asia. So its possible that humans in China evolved (进化) from local people instead of coming from Africa.

local:当地的

instead of: 代替;而不是……

 

Pingliangtai site, Henan
河南平粮台城址

The Pingliangtai site shows an ancient city in China.  ancient 古代的

 

What does the city look like?

Over 4,000 years old, the city is square (正方形的) and has a symmetrical axis (对称轴), implying good city planning at that time. There were also drainage pipelines (排水管道). They show how ancient people manage water resources (资源).

manage 管理

 

Another Important Finding

A double-wheel rut (双轮车辙) was also found there. It is the oldest one in China.

It means people could already make two-wheeled carts (推车) back then.

 

Nanhai No 1 shipwreck, Guangdong
广东“南海一号”南宋沉船水下考古发掘项目

Nanhai No 1 is a ship that dates back to the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279).

It sank in the sea near Guangdong while sending goods abroad (到国外).

date back 始于

sink 沉没

 

The ship was found in 1987. Over the last 30 years, more than 180,000 relics (文物) have been found, such as porcelain (瓷器), gold and silverware (银器).

 

The findings show how busy maritime trade (海上贸易) was during that period.

 

The top 10 discoveries

Last year, there were 1,096 archaeological projects in China, the most in history.

 

The top 10 stand out due to their scale and importance.

due to: because of 因为,由于

scale: 规模

 

Jiegedong Paleolithic cave site in Shaanxi

陕西南郑疥疙洞旧石器时代洞穴遗址

Xiaonanshan site in Heilongjiang 

黑龙江饶河小南山遗址

Huangchengtai site of Shimao in Shaanxi 

陕西神木石峁遗址皇城台

Pingliangtai site in Henan 

河南淮阳平粮台城址

Xiwubi site in Shanxi 

山西绛县西吴壁遗址

Hanxia jade quarry site in Gansu 

甘肃敦煌旱峡玉矿遗址

Zaoshulin Graveyard in Hubei 

湖北随州枣树林春秋曾国贵族墓地

Shichengzi site in Xinjiang 

新疆奇台石城子遗址

Quangou tomb site in Qinghai 

青海乌兰泉沟吐蕃时期壁画墓

Nanhai No 1 shipwreck in Guangdong 

广东“南海一号”南宋沉船水下考古发掘项目

 

Choose the answer:

1. The discoveries made in the Jiegedong Paleolithic cave show that _____.

a. all ancestors of modern humans came from Africa

b. modern humans in China may have evolved from local people

c. Africans have a long history of living in East Asia

d. human beings may have come from places other than Africa

A. ab        B. ac        C. bc        D. bd

D

2. From the Pingliangtai site, we know that ___.

A. China had well-planned cities 4,000 years ago

B. people poorly managed water resources in ancient China

C. people could make cars more than 4,000 years ago

D. most Chinese cities were built less than 4,000 years ago

A

3. What do we know about the Nanhai No. 1 shipwreck?

A. It was featured in an action movie.

B. It sent goods from abroad to Guangdong.

C. It hit rocks and sank 30 years ago.

D. It showed how popular maritime trade was during the Song Dynasty.

D

4. New archaeological findings can tell us ____.

A. which ancient city is the most developed

B. what kind of life people lived in ancient times

C. how people traveled in ancient times

D. the origins of animals and plants

B

From home to space (P6)

科学家如何在家操控火星探测器

After working from home for the last few months, most people have gotten used to their new way of working.

But what if your job was to control a space rover (空间探测器) on Mars (火星)?

get used to 习惯于

control 控制

 

A team of NASA scientists is doing just that. Like the rest of us, these scientists have to work from home.

They have to find ways to work together and take care of the complex (复杂的) tasks to keep the Curiosity rover working on Mars.

The name of the rover 好奇号

 

More about Curiosity

NASA sent the Curiosity rover to Mars in 2012.    Time

It landed on the planet to find out if Mars is, or once was suitable(合适的) for life.

The rover also aims to help us learn more about the Red Planets environment.   Aims

It is 3 meters long and 2.8 meters wide, about the size of a small car.     Size

 

What do the scientists use to work?

These scientists use ordinary (普通的) computers. But they are programming (设定程序) complex orders of instructions (指令) that are then sent to the rover. These instructions helped the rover find a rock sample (样本) in a place on Mars called Edinburgh.

 

How do the scientists work?

The teams 20 scientists work together

by talking to each other through apps or video meetings. One scientist might have to follow 15 message channels (通道) at once.

 

What other things do the scientists need to do their jobs?

NASA also gave the scientists headsets, monitors (监视器) and other things to help them do their jobs from home.

However, they cant get the 3D goggles (眼镜) they usually use to analyze (分析) pictures from Mars. So they have to use simple red-and-blue glasses instead.

 

Choose the answer:

1. Working at home, NASA scientists have to _____.

A. find ways to work together

B. put off difficult tasks

C. make new things to help them

D. improve the work of the Mars rover

A

2. According to the story, how can the space rover work on Mars?

A. Scientists in Edinburgh send their instructions.

B. The rover follows computer orders.

C. Scientists show a rock sample to the rover.

D. The rover can give simple orders to itself.

B

3. According to the story, how do the scientists work together?

A. Talking with each other through apps or video meetings.

B. Recording videos to share their work.

C. Working together in a room.

D. Uploading their work to a new app.

A

4. From the last paragraph, what do NASA scientists use at home?

a. Headsets.

b. 3D goggles.

c. Red-and-blue glasses.

d. Monitors.

A. abc       B. bcd       C. acd       D. abd

C


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