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初三教案 第669期
发布时间:2021-10-18

第8/669期初三教案

顾晓辉

 

‘Giants’ of science (P2)

 

 

I. Pre-reading

•What do you know about the Nobel Prize?

•How many different awards are given?

 

II. While reading

were awarded 被授予,一般过去时的被动语态:was/were+过去分词,表示过去某一时间被做

 

in the spotlight 成为关注的焦点,spotlight 为合成词。

 

Japan-born 日本出生的 复合形容词作定语

 

worked for decades[dɛˈkeɪdz]工作数十载

 

driving climate change for years作systems后置定语。

 

developed v.研发,开发。

 

add to加强,增加。 

eg.Hot winds add to the problem

 

1. What does Dr Manabe show in his study?

A. He shows that carbon dioxide causes global warming.

B. He shows the influence of small changes of weather.

C. He shows how much carbon dioxide is in the atmosphere. 

D. He shows the influence of long-term climate change.

 

In fact 等于actuality,事实上。 

eg.I didn't fail the exam; in fact I did rather well! 

 

it is the first time that+定语从句,表示此事第一次发生,从未发生过,从句一般用现在完成时。表示已经发生的事情对现在的影响

This is the first time that she has shown her anger.

Specifically专门的。

这句话的意思:这是第一次物理学奖专门授予气候科学家

 

rest on 停留在,建立在…= base on

 

2. What is Hansson’s opinion?

A. The study of climate is based on other subjects.

B. The study of climate is scientifically based.

C. Climate studies develop slowly.

D. Our knowledge about the climate is still limited.

 

is seen as 被视为eg.The family is seen as one of the great stabilizing elements in society.

 

major[ˈmeɪdʒər] adj.主要的n.专业课,主修课程。

 

lay the foundation 奠定基础

 

3. What What can we infer from Paragraphs 6-7?

A. Global warming can be stopped if we take action.

B. Manabe’s models can increase global warming.

C. Manabe’s study can help improve the climate.

D. People will die of global warming in the future.

 

4. The story was written to introduce _____.

A. the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics

B. the winners of the 2021 Nobel Prize

C. the newest finding in physics

D. the climate problems we face today

 

III. Further reading

Read the passage and answer the questions.

    Building molecules is a difficult art. Benjamin List and David MacMillan are awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2021 for their development of a precise new tool for molecular construction: organocatalysis(催化剂). This has had a great impact on pharmaceutical(药物)research, and has made chemistry greener. 

    This concept for catalysis is as simple as it is ingenious, and the fact is that many people have wondered why we didn’t think of it earlier,” says Johan Åqvist, who is chair of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry. 

(Next page)

    Organocatalysis (催化剂) has developed at an astounding speed since 2000. Benjamin List and David MacMillan remain leaders in the field, and have shown that organic catalysts can be used to drive multitudes of chemical reactions. Using these reactions, researchers can now more efficiently construct anything from new pharmaceuticals to molecules that can capture light in solar cells. In this way, organocatalysts are bringing the greatest benefit to humankind.                                                                  

 

1. This has ________ on pharmaceutical(药物) research, and has made chemistry greener. 

2. This concept for catalysis is ________ it is ingenious. 

3. In this way, organocatalysts are bringing ________ to humankind. 

 

IV. Post reading

    Choose one of the Nobel Prize winners and talk about their achievements and spirit: 

 

V. Words in use

A. Complete the sentences with proper words.

1. The 2021 Nobel Prizes were a________ from Oct 4 to 11. 

2. The m________ of the building was made of cardboard.

3. One m________ problem did present itself, though.

4. There's still time to c________ your mind.

B. Fill in the blanks with proper phrases. Each can be used only once. Change the forms where necessary.

add to, In fact, bring out, rest on, lay the foundation, is seen as

1. ________, things could get worse in the short run. 

2. I have nothing to ________ my earlier statement. 

3. What we are learning at school will ________ for the future.

4. The ship has come to ________ the sand. 

5. They try to ________ one new book each month.

6. He ________ a potential(有潜力的) manager in the future.  

C. Translate the sentences into Chinese.

1.Our knowledge about the climate rests on a solid scientific foundation.

_______________________________________

2. It is the first time the physics prize has been given specifically to climate scientists.

_______________________________________

 

参考答案

II. 1. A。showed the connection between carbon dioxide (CO2) and warming in the atmosphere.(细节题,寻找关键词,精确定位。)

2. B。climate rests on a solid scientific foundation.(细节分析、推断。)

3. C。The report says … need to … to stop … that work builds on … (细节推断题)

4. A。

III. 1. had a great impact

   2. as simple as

   3. the greatest benefit 

V. A: 1. awarded 2. model 3. major 4. change

B: 1. In fact 2. add to 3. lay the foundation 4. rest on 5. bring out 6. is seen as

C: 1. 我们对气候的了解建立在坚实的科学基础之上。

   2. 诺贝尔物理学奖首次专门授予气候科学家.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bacteria bring art back to life (P6)

 

 

I. Pre-reading

How do people protect these cultural heritage (文物)? 

•Do you appreciate these artworks?

•How can we better take care of them?

 

II. While reading

keep away from 远离  

be kept away 表示被动

 

priceless 珍贵的;无价的  相当于  

valuable 有价值的 

precious  珍贵的(抽象的)

worthless 没有价值的

 

译:你可能认为细菌应该远离那些古老又珍贵的艺术作品。但是一些人正用细菌让艺术复活。

 

according to  据...所说;按照;依照;根据; 

 

micro- 前缀 表示微观的 

如:microsoft 微软公司 

microphone话筒,麦克风   

microwave oven 微波炉 

 

have been used 现在完成时的被动语态"已经被应用/使用"

 

ancient 古老的 ancient times 古代  modern times 现代

 

译:根据Popular Science 所提,微生物已经从几百年前的壁画到油画再到古墙都被用过。人们用它们清理并把这些文化遗产的鲜艳颜色带了回来。

 

promising  adj.有前途的;有希望的;有出息的

原形:promise  允许/许诺

 

while doing sth. 当...时,用doing 的原因是前后主语一致,可以省略后面的主语

 

unharmed 安然无恙的   

un-- (prefix) 否定   

harm 伤害 

 

1. How did the Italian art restoration team clean the marble?

A. They used eight kinds of bacteria to clean the marble.

B. They washed the marble with 1,000 types of bacteria.

C. They cleaned the marble with animal glue.

D. They used both traditional and biological ways to clean it.

 

biocleaning生物净化--后面有解释 就是 用细菌清洁艺术品 

bio- 生物的  

 

be ruined 被损坏 

ruins 废墟 

 

glue 胶;粘贴    

 

clean away 清除       

ran away 跑开     

put away 收拾  

 

2. The word “bugs” in Paragraph 4 refers to _____.

A. frescoes       

B. animal glue

C. bacteria       

D. contaminants

 

turn out 证明是 ;结果是;原来是 

eg. It turns out to be true. 事实证明是真的。

eg. Everything will turn out well . 一切会好起来。

 

bacteria 细菌,是复数形式,研究单个细菌没有意义,几乎不用单数形式bacterium.

 

eat through  吃穿;腐蚀  

eat through an apple 吃掉一个苹果

through空间穿过;across 表面穿过

go through hardships 吃苦 

 

original/ E’rIdZInEl/ adj.原来的    

origin n.起源 

 

certain adj.确定的一定的      

certainly = sure = of course

 

3. From Paragraph 5, we can infer that _____.

A. bacteria for cleaning art are easy to grow

B. few contaminants can be cleaned by bacteria

C. not all types of bacteria can be used to clean art

D. Pseudomonas stutzeri can be used to deal with bugs

 

It is /was +who/that+其它

是艺术家创作了艺术作品,然而,是细菌在未来帮助人们欣赏它们

 

4. What is the main idea of the story?

A. Microbes influence our lives in different areas.

B. Biocleaning is a good way to clean art.

C. We should take care of our cultural heritage.

D. A new microbe was found to help clean art works.

 

III. Further reading

Read the passage and finish the tasks.

Daniel: May, is this the Hall of Ancient China?

May: Yes. Look at these historical relics here – amazing!

Daniel: Why are they all in glass boxes?

May: For protection. Some relics will turn to dust if exposed to air. 

Daniel: So there isn't air in the glass boxes?

May: No, there isn't. They are vacuums.

Daniel: I wonder how old these things are,

May: Yeah, they all come from a very ancient time.

Daniel: Hey, look at the three-legged cup. I saw it on TV.

May: The bronze cup was made 4,000years ago. It's priceless!Daniel: Yeah, it has no value at all. Who will use this cup today?May: No! “Priceless” means so valuable that you can't put a price on it. 

Daniel: Oh, it does?

 

1. To ________ these historical relics, they are all in glass boxes.  

2. Priceless doesn’t mean ________, it means valuable.

3. What will happen if the relics are exposed to air? 

 

IV. Post reading

    People go on trips during National Day. To be a civilized citizen, they should follow some rules. 

These rules should cover:

•traveling

•visiting places of interest

•eating 

 

V. Words in use

A. Complete the sentences with proper words.

1. Since the last table-tennis championships, a crop of p________ players has appeared.

2. I feel really gloomy because the weather r________ my plan.

3. We saw p________ paintings at the museum

4.Can you imagine how people lived in a________ times? 

B. Fill in the blanks with proper phrases. Each can be used only once. Change the forms where necessary.

turn out, clear  away, eat through, according to 

1. If you don’t ________ the rubbish regularly, it will just accumulate.

2. How come they can't ________ the toothpaste tube?

3. ________ the weather forecast, it will rain tomorrow

4. The conclusion ________ to be right, so I was wrong.

C. Translate the sentences into Chinese.

1. It turns out that bacteria are perfect for this kind of task – if you choose the right one.

____________________________________________

2. They chose eight of the most promising types of bacteria from about 1,000 and tested them on the marble. 

____________________________________________

 

参考答案

II.1. A

2. C

3. C。推断题,并不是所有的细菌都可以用来清洁艺术品。

4. B

III. 1. protect 2. worthless 3. They will turn to dust.

V. A: 1. promising 2. ruined 3. priceless 4. ancient 

B: 1. clear away 2. eat through 3. According to 4. turned out

C: 1. 事实证明,细菌非常适合这种任务——如果你选择了合适的细菌。 

  2. 他们从1000多种细菌中选择了最靠谱的8种,并在大理石上做了测试。

 

 

 

 

 


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