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高考英语书面表达专题指导:书信
作者:胡国燕
时间:2007-05-07

书信类书面表达题命题特点:

书信属于应用文,旨在考察学生在实际生活中应用英语的能力,体现了学习英语的实用性。近年来经常用以下几种出题形式来考察书信的写作应用能力。

1. 以看图或表格的形式出题。

2. 以写回信的形式出题。

3. 以写电子邮件的形式出题。

在出题内容方面多涉及到与国外朋友之间的交流,介绍中方文化,了解西方文化。

写书信的一些格式

书信的格式是学生应该掌握的基本内容。写书信有一些固定格式,要注意以下几个方面:

1、写信的日期

英文信函要把写信日期写在信的右上角,寄信人的地址下面。通常的写法是:月、日、(加逗号)年。如:March 15,2007.

2、称呼

称呼通常以Dear开头,前面不要留空格。称呼后面通常要用逗号。称呼朋友时可以直呼其名,Dear Tom.为了表示尊重,尤其是对长辈,不是很熟悉的人,间或也可以加上表示尊敬的称谓,如:Dear Miss Connie Brown。在一般公函中可以用Dear Sir,或者Dear Sirs.

3、信的正文

信的正文是信函的主体部分。在高考作文中应该按照题目要求把题目的要点表达清楚。使文章逻辑清晰、语言通顺。可以根据需要分为若干个段落。

4、结尾语

结尾语相当于中文的表示祝愿的话。一般写在正文的下面。应该根据文章的内容写。如:

Looking forward to your early reply,

With best regards (to you and your family),

I will be very happy if you can...

结尾语常常用分词结构,或者介词短语。当结尾语是分词结构或介词短语时,句尾用逗号。如果用句子,则用句号。

5、结束语

结束语的第一个词的首字母大写,结尾用逗号。朋友之间的信函常用的结束语有:Sincerely yours, Yours ever;公函常用的结束语有:Yours sincerely, Yours respectfully;亲友之间的信函,可以用:Love, Lovingly yours等等。

6、署名

署名写在结束语下面。在高考作文中一般题目会要求你用某个特定的名字署名。因此在高考作文中请大家注意审题,不要随便使用自己的真名。

高考试题得分策略

1.一定要确保没有遗漏内容要点。遇到自己不太有把握的地方可以换一种说法,但是绝对不能不说,也不要明知不对还是写上去了。如:保护环

境,我们可以用protect the environment, save the environment, 还可以反过来说:do not do harm to the environment。

2.要考虑选词和句型。在一篇文章中,重复使用某个动词或词组,给阅卷老师的印象是这个学生只会用这个词,他掌握的词汇量不多,哪怕这是一个很好的词,因此在构思一篇文章时要有意识考虑选词和句型。表达同一内容时我们可以用几种不同的方法。如表示:当他听到这个消息,他立刻飞快地跑出去。

When he heard the news, he ran out quickly. (用时间状语从句)

Hearing the news, he ran out immediately. (用分词结构表示时间)

On hearing the news, he dashed out at once. (用动名词短语表示"一……就……,而且动词dash的意思是速度很快的跑。)

以上三种说法虽然都可以表示中文所给的意思,但是显然给人留下不同的印象,可以看出一个学生的英语语言驾驭能力。得高分的作文不仅要有漂亮的句子,而且整篇文章要读起来流畅。语句间的连接要好。

注意信的开头和结尾。虽然写信有一些常用的开头和结尾,但是好的开头和结尾应该与具体的题目要求和话题吻合,而不是随意套用某一个模式。

真题分析

假如你叫Peter,来自英国伦敦,在圣诞节前(12月15日)给好友Jack写了一封信,告诉他你来到北京半年来的生活情况。 要点如下:

1、北京的冬天比较冷而且干燥;

2、车辆靠右行使,好不容易才适应;

3、多数同学都是骑车上学,我也是一样;

4、虽然上课时间一样,但是为了准备考试,花在学习上的时间比较长。

学生习作:

Dear Jack, December 15, 2007

It is quite long since we last wrote to each other and I miss you very much.

I'm fine here in Beijing. It's winter now and the weather is cold and dry. I have to wear a lot of clothes to keep warm. Cars are supposed to go in the right, which is opposite from that in London. Most of my classmates ride bikes to school and so do I. I like to ride a bike because it's not only convenient but also friendly to the environment. What's more, we can keep ourselves from the traffic jam, which is normal here.

To prepare for the exams, students here have to spend much more hours on study, though the class time is not longer than ours.

As Christmas is drawing near, I guess you are busy preparing for it. What's your life like? Did anything interesting take place? Please write back to me.

Merry Christmas!

Yours,

Peter


点评:

这篇学生的习作总的来说写的不错,把题目要求写的主要内容都谈到了。而且还有不少好的词语和句型。如:so do I; What's more,

但是仍然有可以改进的地方。如:

Cars are supposed to go in the right, which is opposite from that in Britain. 在这句话中,suppose是一个很好的词,但是be supposed to do表示"应该做……"。与作者想说的:"汽车靠右行驶"已经不一样了。表示这个意思应该说:Cars and buses are running on / along the right side of the road.

作者在表示虽然上课时间一样,但是花在学习上的时间比较长,因为要考试。作者在写这句时比较忠实于原文。但是though the class time is not longer than ours,直译的结果是使人不明白,"是每节课的时间?还是每天、每周的上课时间?

参考答案:

Dear Jack,

I have been in Beijing for half a year. I really enjoy life here.

There are a number of differences between Beijing and London. Beijing is much colder and drier in mid-winter than London, but it didn't take me long to get used to it.

What I really find hard is to change my habit of walking on the left side of the road. What's more, I go to school by bike like most people here. I have to spend more time on study, because I'm facing fierce (激烈的)competition. The working hours are the same as those in England

Christmas and New Year are just around the corner. Wishing you all the best!

Yours,

Peter


模拟试题

你接到你的朋友从美国寄给你的一封信,请根据信的内容写一封回信。建议他及时去看医生,调整心态,如果实在不行可以暂时在学校附近租一间房子。

Dear Li Hua,

I am studying at MIT in Boston and I have a problem that troubles me so much I can't bear it any more. I want to ask you for help.

Tom, who shares an apartment with me, never sleeps before 12 o'clock. What is more, he often plays music very loudly when he wants to relax while others are having a rest. Now I have trouble falling asleep at night and feel sleepy during the day. Since final exams are in two weeks' time, I really don't know what to do to solve the problem. I am looking forward to your advice.

Yours,

Li Ming


参考答案:

Dear Li Ming,

I'm so sorry to hear that you're in a difficult situation. First of all, you may talk to your roommate and tell him directly that you are accustomed to going to bed before 12, or it will be hard for you to fall asleep. I guess he didn't mean to disturb you.

Second, you may have put too much pressure on yourself and are too anxious to get good marks in the coming exams. If so, you may go and see a doctor and get some help. It is important that you learn to relax.

Since exams are just around the corner, you can rent a house for the time being and see if it helps. What you are experiencing is quite common among freshmen, so learn to take it easy.

Best wishes.

Sincerely yours,

Li Hua



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