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高考英语书面表达专题指导:调查报告
作者:舒建东
时间:2007-05-17

命题特点

1. 调查报告的命题形式一般提供图(graph)或表(table),要求考生用简洁、生动的语言把图中所提供的信息准确、完整地表达出来.

2. 调查报告命题所提供的图表形式多样,表格一般多为数据表,而图一般为柱状图(bar graph)、曲线图(line graph),圆形图(circular graph)、饼形图(pie)或百分比图(percentage graph)等;

3. 考生需要正确读取图表数据,同时,围绕题目中心对所给材料进行分析、判断、归纳。

4. 有些命题还需要考生分析调查结果,揭示其规律,找出解决问题的对策。

如何解答

1. 求同存异,谨慎审题

首先,考生应认真研读题目要求,充分了解调查结果所提供的图表内容, 要通过观察,比较量与量之间的关系,仔细考虑对比双方或多方的内在联系了解某一变量的发展趋势,概括归纳图表内容所传达的信息,做出合理的判断。

例 :请你根据下面的图表用英语写一篇短文,内容包括以下两方面:

1. 概括说明中美大学生的主要收入来源;

2. 分析产生这种不同现象的可能原因。

3.对将来趋势的预测。



注意:1. 词数100左右;

  2. 短文的题目已为你写好。

生词:1. source 来源

  2. scholarship 奖学金

学生习作节选:

Compared with 50% of American students, about 90 % of Chinese students get money from their parents.

解析:从上句表达分析, 考生显然把表中所提供的百分比误认为是中美两国学生数的百分比,实际表中所提供的百分比为中美学生三种收入来源的百分比,如果审题有误, 必将导致严重失分.

2. 紧扣主题, 步步深入

调查报告往往围绕一个主题,利用所给的调查结果展开。

1) 调查报告的开头

为说明该调查的真实性和可靠性,在调查报告的开头往往交待调查结果的来源、方式和调查目的。常见的开头有:

1. Recently, a survey has been done to find out ______. In this survey, _____were interviewed. They were asked ______.

2. Recently, we've conducted a survey to learn about _____. In this survey, _____ were interviewed about _______.

2) 图表说明

图表说明是调查报告的重点,交待图表信息时,应选用有针对性的数据来说明问题,切忌面面俱到,一一罗列全部数据,相反,考生应该对图表信息加以分析、归纳,选取有代表性的,如最大值,最小值,以及同类信息加以表述,做到主次分明、准确生动。这一部分的表达往往可用以下句型来表达:

1. The table /chart diagram /graph shows/indicates (that) ?

2. From /According to the table/chart diagram/graph ?

3. As is shown in the table/chart diagram/graph

4. As can be seen from the table/chart/diagram/graph/figures, ?

5. Figures/statistics shows (that)...

6. It can be seen from the figures/statistics ?

7. We can see from the figures/statistics ?

8. It is clear/apparent from the figures/statistics ?

图表数据的变化采用以下表达:

增加:increase / rise / go up / grow / jump

减少:decrease / go down / drop / fall /decline /reduce

稳定:remain stable /steady ...

达到:reach 

接近:approach

倍数的表达:

A is twice / three times / half + as large as / larger than / the size of + B

百分比的表达:

A is / makes up / accounts for 53% of the total income/population?.

3) 分析问题,解决问题

有些调查报告还需要对图表信息所反映出的问题和趋势进行分析,说明问题产生的原因或所造成的后果。

如上文提到的例子中,该文不仅仅需要概括说明中美大学生的主要收入来源,同时还需要分析产生这种现象的可能原因,表达自己对将来趋势的预测。可采用下列句型说明各种原因。

There are probably a number of / a variety of reasons / causes for this significant increase / growth / decline in... First ... Second ?

分析某一现象可能造成的后果或带来的影响,可用以下句型。

1.The great effect the changes has on ?is obvious/evident/apparent.

2.It will bring about an unfavorable influence on ?

3. It may produce a considerable change in?

4.It may result in a number of problems.

5.The consequence it produced is ?

6. And perhaps the most direct result of ? is ?

4) 调查报告写作模板

Recently, a survey has been done to find out ______ (the topic). _____(students/people) were interviewed to answer the question _______.

 As is shown / indicated / illustrated by the figure /percentage in the table (graph /picture /pie /chart), ?(the topic) has been on rise/ decrease (goes up/increases/drops/decreases), significantly/dramatically/steadily rising / decreasing from _____ in _____ to ______ in ______. From the sharp/marked decline/ rise in the chart, it goes without saying that _____.

There are at least two good reasons accounting for ______. On the one hand, ________. On the other hand, ______ is due to the fact that _______. 

 In addition, ______ is responsible for _______. Maybe there are some other reasons to show ________. But it is generally believed that the above mentioned reasons are commonly convincing.

 As far as I am concerned, I hold the point of view that _____. I am sure my opinion is both sound and well-grounded.

舒建东

浙江省镇海中学高级教师,英语教研组长被评为浙江省师德楷模。 先后有10多篇教学论文和课题在各级各类杂志及论文评比中发表、获奖。主编英语教学用书5册。

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