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非谓语动词用法回顾
作者:21ST
时间:2010-01-28

非谓语动词是高考重要考查项目,其难度在于它与句子结构、动词本身的用法、以及时态语态直接相关。要掌握好非谓语动词,关键要把握以下五点:

一、牢记一些常用动词及特殊结构对其后的非谓语动词形式的不同要求。可以进行这样的归纳:

哪些动词后习惯接动词-ing形式作宾语(enjoy, miss, imagine, avoid, admit…)?

哪些动词后习惯接动词不定式作宾语(offer, decide, afford, refuse, promise…)?

哪些动词后既可接动词不定式又可接动词-ing形式,但含义有区别(regret, forget, try…)?

有序数词the first/second…/last 修饰名词或代词时,后面再跟非谓语动词作定语,用什么形式?

……

二、了解各类非谓语动词不同的句法功能。如:动词不定式可用来表示目的或一种出乎意料的结果;动词-ing形式可用来表示一种伴随状态或顺其自然的结果。例如:

He fell off the bike, breaking his left leg.(从车上摔下,腿受伤是很自然的事)

I woke up in the morning only to find all the ground outside covered with snow. (下雪是意料之外的事情)

三、弄清非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的关系。如果非谓语动词的逻辑主语是非谓语动词动作的发出者,即两者之间存在主谓关系,就用非谓语动词的主动式,通常是动词-ing形式;如果是动宾关系,则用被动式,通常是过去分词。例如:

1) Walking in the fields on a March afternoon, he could feel the warmth of spring.

Walking短语与主语he是主谓关系,相当于When he was walking in the fields…

2) Driven by a greater demand of vegetables, farmers have built more green houses.

Driven短语与主语farmers是动宾关系,相当于Because farmers are driven by…

四、“连词+分词”结构中,分词的形式同样取决于分词与与其逻辑主语(通常即句子的主语)的关系,同第四点所述。

1) No matter how frequently ________ (perform), the works of Beethoven always attract large audiences.

2) While ________ (wait) for the train, I had a long talk with my sister about her work.

Key: 1) performed; 2) waiting

五、了解非谓语动词所表示的时间概念,如:不定式通常表示将要发生的动作,动词-ing形式表示正在进行的动作,过去分词表示已经被完成的动作。如果一个动作发生在另一个动作之前,发生在先的动作要用非谓语动词的完成式。

1) The Town Hall ________ (complete) in the 1800s was the most well-known building at that time.

2) The meeting ________ (hold) tomorrow is of great importance.

3) At the beginning of class, the noise of desks _______ (open and close) could be heard outside the classroom.

4) After finishing her work, she went home. (After finishing可改为________ )

5) It is said that he has gone to Australia. (该句可改为He is said ________ to Australia. )

Key: 1) completed; 2) to be held; 3) being opened and closed;4) Having finished; 5) to have gone

高 考 原 题 回 放

【回放一】

1. Bill suggested ______ a meeting on what to do for the Shanghai Expo during the vacation. (09上海)

A. having held B. to hold C. holding D. hold

2. They use computers to keep the traffic ______ smoothly. (09全国II)

A. being run B. run C. to run D. running

3. The message is very important, so it is supposed ______ as soon as possible. (08陕西)

A. to be sent B. to send C. being sent D. sending

4. –The last one ______ pays the meal.

–Agreed! (07全国I)

A. arrived B. arrives C. to arrive D. arriving

【回放二】

5. ______ the project in time, the staff were working at weekends. (09天津)

A. Competing B. Having completed

C. To have completed D. To complete

6. There is a great deal of evidence ______ that music activities engage different parts of the brain. (09浙江)

A. indicate B. indicating

C. to indicate D. to be indicating

7. He was busy writing a story, only ______ once in a while to smoke a cigarette. (08辽宁)

A. to stop B. stopping

C. to have stopped D. having stopped

8. He hurried to the station only ______ that the train had left. (05广东)

A. to find B. finding

C. found D. to have found

【回放三】

9. ______ by the advances in technology, many farmers have set up wind farms on their land. (09天津)

A. Being encouraged B. Encouraging

C. Encouraged D. Having encouraged

10. For breakfast he only drinks juice from fresh fruit ______ on his own farm. (09北京)

A. grown B. being grown

C. to be grown D. to grow

11. Now that we’ve discussed our problem, are people happy with the decisions ______ ? (09全国I)

A. taking B. take C. taken D. to take

12. ______ their hats into the air, the fans of the winning team let out loud shouts of victory. (08天津)

A. To throw B. Thrown

C. Throwing D. Being thrown

13. Faced with a bill for $10,000, ______. (06陕西)

A. John has taken an extra job

B. the boss has given John an extra job

C. an extra job has been taken

D. an extra job has been given to John

【回放四】

14. –Who should be responsible for the accident?

–The boss, not the workers. They just carried out the order ______. (08福建)

A. as told B. as are told

C. as telling D. as they told

15. The flowers his friend gave him will die unless _______ every day. (07四川)

A. watered B. watering C. water D. to water

16. Every evening after dinner, if not ______ from work, I will spend some time walking my dog. (09湖南)

A. being tired B. tiring C. tired D. to be tired

17. When ______ different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences without noticing the many similarities. (06浙江)

A. compared B. being compared

C. comparing D. having compared

【回放五】

18. Police are now searching for a woman who is reported to ____ since the flood hit the area last Friday. (06山东)

A. have been missing B. have got lost

C. be missing D. get lost

19. _____ in the queue for half an hour, the old man suddenly realized he had left the cheque in the car. (08福建)

A. Waiting B. To wait

C. Having waited D. To have waited

20. _____ many times, he finally understood it.(09四川)

A. Told B. Telling

C. Having told D. Having been told

21. We are invited to a party ______ in our club next Friday. (09山东)

A. to be held B. held C. being held D. holding

22. Nowadays people sometimes separate their waste to make it easier for it ______. (09湖南)

A. reusing B. reused

C. reuses D. to be reused

(答案见C7版)


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